Coding in Cython

This chapter discusses Cython, which is a compiled language based on Python. The major advantage it has over Python is that code can be much faster (sometimes orders of magnitude) and can directly call C and C++ code. As Cython is essentially a superset of the Python language, one often doesn’t make a distinction between Cython and Python code in Sage (e.g. one talks of the “Sage Python Library” and “Python Coding Conventions”).

Python is an interpreted language and has no declared data types for variables. These features make it easy to write and debug, but Python code can sometimes be slow. Cython code can look a lot like Python, but it gets translated into C code (often very efficient C code) and then compiled. Thus it offers a language which is familiar to Python developers, but with the potential for much greater speed. Cython also allows Sage developers to interface with C and C++ much easier than using the Python C API directly.

Cython is a compiled version of Python. It was originally based on Pyrex but has changed based on what Sage’s developers needed; Cython has been developed in concert with Sage. However, it is an independent project now, which is used beyond the scope of Sage. As such, it is a young, but developing language, with young, but developing documentation. See its web page,, for the most up-to-date information or check out the Language Basics to get started immediately.

Writing Cython Code in Sage

There are several ways to create and build Cython code in Sage.

  1. In the Sage Notebook, begin any cell with %cython. When you evaluate that cell,

    1. It is saved to a file.

    2. Cython is run on it with all the standard Sage libraries automatically linked if necessary.

    3. The resulting shared library file (.so / .dll / .dylib) is then loaded into your running instance of Sage.

    4. The functionality defined in that cell is now available for you to use in the notebook. Also, the output cell has a link to the C program that was compiled to create the .so file.

    5. A cpdef or def function, say testfunction, defined in a %cython cell in a worksheet can be imported and made available in a different %cython cell within the same worksheet by importing it as shown below:

      from __main__ import testfunction
  2. Create an .spyx file and attach or load it from the command line. This is similar to creating a %cython cell in the notebook but works completely from the command line (and not from the notebook).

  3. Create a .pyx file and add it to the Sage library.

    1. First, add a listing for the Cython extension to the variable ext_modules in the file SAGE_ROOT/src/ See the distutils.extension.Extension class for more information on creating a new Cython extension.
    2. Run sage -b to rebuild Sage.

    For example, in order to compile SAGE_ROOT/src/sage/graphs/chrompoly.pyx, we see the following lines in

              sources = ['sage/graphs/chrompoly.pyx'],
              libraries = ['gmp']),

Special Pragmas

If Cython code is either attached or loaded as a .spyx file or loaded from the notebook as a %cython block, the following pragmas are available:

  • clang — may be either c or c++ indicating whether a C or C++ compiler should be used.
  • clib — additional libraries to be linked in, the space separated list is split and passed to distutils.
  • cinclude — additional directories to search for header files. The space separated list is split and passed to distutils.
  • cfile – additional C or C++ files to be compiled
  • cargs – additional parameters passed to the compiler

For example:

#clang C++
#clib givaro
#cinclude /usr/local/include/
#cargs -ggdb
#cfile foo.c

Attaching or Loading .spyx Files

The easiest way to try out Cython without having to learn anything about distutils, etc., is to create a file with the extension spyx, which stands for “Sage Pyrex”:

  1. Create a file power2.spyx.

  2. Put the following in it:

    def is2pow(n):
        while n != 0 and n%2 == 0:
            n = n >> 1
        return n == 1
  3. Start the Sage command line interpreter and load the spyx file (this will fail if you do not have a C compiler installed).

    sage: load("power2.spyx")
    Compiling power2.spyx...
    sage: is2pow(12)

Note that you can change power2.spyx, then load it again and it will be recompiled on the fly. You can also attach power2.spyx so it is reloaded whenever you make changes:

sage: attach("power2.spyx")

Cython is used for its speed. Here is a timed test on a 2.6 GHz Opteron:

sage: %time [n for n in range(10^5) if is2pow(n)]
[1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, 128, 256, 512, 1024, 2048, 4096, 8192, 16384, 32768, 65536]
CPU times: user 0.60 s, sys: 0.00 s, total: 0.60 s
Wall time: 0.60 s

Now, the code in the file power2.spyx is valid Python, and if we copy this to a file and load that, we get the following:

sage: load("")
sage: %time [n for n in range(10^5) if is2pow(n)]
[1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, 128, 256, 512, 1024, 2048, 4096, 8192, 16384, 32768, 65536]
CPU times: user 1.01 s, sys: 0.04 s, total: 1.05 s
Wall time: 1.05 s

By the way, we could gain even a little more speed with the Cython version with a type declaration, by changing def is2pow(n): to def is2pow(unsigned int n):.

Interrupt and Signal Handling

When writing Cython code for Sage, special care must be taken to ensure the code can be interrupted with CTRL-C. Since Cython optimizes for speed, Cython normally does not check for interrupts. For example, code like the following cannot be interrupted:

sage: cython('while True: pass')  # DON'T DO THIS

While this is running, pressing CTRL-C has no effect. The only way out is to kill the Sage process. On certain systems, you can still quit Sage by typing CTRL-\ (sending a Quit signal) instead of CTRL-C.

Sage provides two related mechanisms to deal with interrupts:

  • Use sig_check() if you are writing mixed Cython/Python code. Typically this is code with (nested) loops where every individual statement takes little time.
  • Use sig_on() and sig_off() if you are calling external C libraries or inside pure Cython code (without any Python functions) where even an individual statement, like a library call, can take a long time.

The functions sig_check(), sig_on() and sig_off() can be put in all kinds of Cython functions: def, cdef or cpdef. You cannot put them in pure Python code (files with extension .py). These functions are specific to Sage. To use them, you need to include their declarations with:

include "sage/ext/interrupt.pxi"


Cython cdef or cpdef functions with a return type (like cdef int myfunc():) need to have an except value to propagate exceptions. Remember this whenever you write sig_check() or sig_on() inside such a function, otherwise you will see a message like Exception KeyboardInterrupt: KeyboardInterrupt() in <function name> ignored.

Using sig_check()

sig_check() can be used to check for pending interrupts. If an interrupt happens during the execution of C or Cython code, it will be caught by the next sig_check(), the next sig_on() or possibly the next Python statement. With the latter we mean that certain Python statements also check for interrupts, an example of this is the print statement. The following loop can be interrupted:

sage: cython('while True: print "Hello"')

The typical use case for sig_check() is within tight loops doing complicated stuff (mixed Python and Cython code, potentially raising exceptions). It is reasonably safe to use and gives a lot of control, because in your Cython code, a KeyboardInterrupt can only be raised during sig_check():

def sig_check_example():
    for x in foo:
        # (one loop iteration which does not take a long time)

This KeyboardInterrupt is treated like any other Python exception and can be handled as usual:

def catch_interrupts():
        while some_condition():
    except KeyboardInterrupt:
        # (handle interrupt)

Of course, you can also put the try/except inside the loop in the example above.

The function sig_check() is an extremely fast inline function which should have no measurable effect on performance.

Using sig_on() and sig_off()

Another mechanism for interrupt handling is the pair of functions sig_on() and sig_off(). It is more powerful than sig_check() but also a lot more dangerous. You should put sig_on() before and sig_off() after any Cython code which could potentially take a long time. These two must always be called in pairs, i.e. every sig_on() must be matched by a closing sig_off().

In practice your function will probably look like:

def sig_example():
    # (some harmless initialization)
    # (a long computation here, potentially calling a C library)
    # (some harmless post-processing)
    return something

It is possible to put sig_on() and sig_off() in different functions, provided that sig_off() is called before the function which calls sig_on() returns. The following code is invalid:

# INVALID code because we return from function foo()
# without calling sig_off() first.
cdef foo():

def f1():

But the following is valid since you cannot call foo interactively:

cdef int foo():
    return 2+2

def f1():
    return foo()

For clarity however, it is best to avoid this. One good example where the above makes sense is the new_gen() function in The PARI C Library Interface.

A common mistake is to put sig_off() towards the end of a function (before the return) when the function has multiple return statements. So make sure there is a sig_off() before every return (and also before every raise).


The code inside sig_on() should be pure C or Cython code. If you call any Python code or manipulate any Python object (even something trivial like x = []), an interrupt can mess up Python’s internal state. When in doubt, try to use sig_check() instead.

Also, when an interrupt occurs inside sig_on(), code execution immediately stops without cleaning up. For example, any memory allocated inside sig_on() is lost. See Advanced Functions for ways to deal with this.

When the user presses CTRL-C inside sig_on(), execution will jump back to sig_on() (the first one if there is a stack) and sig_on() will raise KeyboardInterrupt. As with sig_check(), this exception can be handled in the usual way:

def catch_interrupts():
        sig_on()  # This must be INSIDE the try
        # (some long computation)
    except KeyboardInterrupt:
        # (handle interrupt)

Certain C libraries in Sage are written in a way that they will raise Python exceptions: libGAP and NTL can raise RuntimeError and PARI can raise PariError. These exceptions behave exactly like the KeyboardInterrupt in the example above and can be caught by putting the sig_on() inside a try/except block. See Error Handling in C Libraries to see how this is implmented.

It is possible to stack sig_on() and sig_off(). If you do this, the effect is exactly the same as if only the outer sig_on()/sig_off() was there. The inner ones will just change a reference counter and otherwise do nothing. Make sure that the number of sig_on() calls equal the number of sig_off() calls:

def f1():
    x = f2()

def f2():
    # ...
    return ans

Extra care must be taken with exceptions raised inside sig_on(). The problem is that, if you do not do anything special, the sig_off() will never be called if there is an exception. If you need to raise an exception yourself, call a sig_off() before it:

def raising_an_exception():
    # (some long computation)
    if (something_failed):
        raise RuntimeError("something failed")
    # (some more computation)
    return something

Alternatively, you can use try/finally which will also catch exceptions raised by subroutines inside the try:

def try_finally_example():
    sig_on()  # This must be OUTSIDE the try
        # (some long computation, potentially raising exceptions)
        return something

If you want to also catch this exception, you need a nested try:

def try_finally_and_catch_example():
            # (some long computation, potentially raising exceptions)
    except Exception:
        print "Trouble!Trouble!"

sig_on() is implemented using the C library call setjmp() which takes a very small but still measurable amount of time. In very time-critical code, one can conditionally call sig_on() and sig_off():

def conditional_sig_on_example(long n):
    if n > 100:
    # (do something depending on n)
    if n > 100:

This should only be needed if both the check (n > 100 in the example) and the code inside the sig_on() block take very little time. In Sage versions before 4.7, sig_on() was much slower, that’s why there are more checks like this in old code.

Other Signals

Apart from handling interrupts, sig_on() provides more general signal handling. For example, it handles alarm() time-outs by raising an AlarmInterrupt (inherited from KeyboardInterrupt) exception.

If the code inside sig_on() would generate a segmentation fault or call the C function abort() (or more generally, raise any of SIGSEGV, SIGILL, SIGABRT, SIGFPE, SIGBUS), this is caught by the interrupt framework and an exception is raised (RuntimeError for SIGABRT, FloatingPointError for SIGFPE and the custom exception SignalError, based on BaseException, otherwise):

cdef extern from 'stdlib.h':
    void abort()

def abort_example():
sage: abort_example()
Traceback (most recent call last):
RuntimeError: Aborted

This exception can be handled by a try/except block as explained above. A segmentation fault or abort() unguarded by sig_on() would simply terminate Sage. This applies only to sig_on(), the function sig_check() only deals with interrupts and alarms.

Instead of sig_on(), there is also a function sig_str(s), which takes a C string s as argument. It behaves the same as sig_on(), except that the string s will be used as a string for the exception. sig_str(s) should still be closed by sig_off(). Example Cython code:

cdef extern from 'stdlib.h':
    void abort()

def abort_example_with_sig_str():
    sig_str("custom error message")

Executing this gives:

sage: abort_example_with_sig_str()
Traceback (most recent call last):
RuntimeError: custom error message

With regard to ordinary interrupts (i.e. SIGINT), sig_str(s) behaves the same as sig_on(): a simple KeyboardInterrupt is raised.

Error Handling in C Libraries

Some C libraries can produce errors and use some sort of callback mechanism to report errors: an external error handling function needs to be set up which will be called by the C library if an error occurs.

The function sig_error() can be used to deal with these errors. This function may only be called within a sig_on() block (otherwise Sage will crash hard) after raising a Python exception. You need to use the Python/C API for this and call sig_error() after calling some variant of PyErr_SetObject(). Even within Cython, you cannot use the raise statement, because then the sig_error() will never be executed. The call to sig_error() will use the sig_on() machinery such that the exception will be seen by sig_on().

A typical error handler implemented in Cython would look as follows:

include "sage/ext/interrupt.pxi"
from cpython.exc cimport PyErr_SetString

cdef void error_handler(char *msg):
    PyErr_SetString(RuntimeError, msg)

In Sage, this mechanism is used for libGAP, NTL and PARI.

Advanced Functions

There are several more specialized functions for dealing with interrupts. As mentioned above, sig_on() makes no attempt to clean anything up (restore state or freeing memory) when an interrupt occurs. In fact, it would be impossible for sig_on() to do that. If you want to add some cleanup code, use sig_on_no_except() for this. This function behaves exactly like sig_on(), except that any exception raised (like KeyboardInterrupt or RuntimeError) is not yet passed to Python. Essentially, the exception is there, but we prevent Cython from looking for the exception. Then cython_check_exception() can be used to make Cython look for the exception.

Normally, sig_on_no_except() returns 1. If a signal was caught and an exception raised, sig_on_no_except() instead returns 0. The following example shows how to use sig_on_no_except():

def no_except_example():
    if not sig_on_no_except():
        # (clean up messed up internal state)

        # Make Cython realize that there is an exception.
        # It will look like the exception was actually raised
        # by cython_check_exception().
    # (some long computation, messing up internal state of objects)

There is also a function sig_str_no_except(s) which is analogous to sig_str(s).


See the file SAGE_ROOT/src/sage/tests/interrupt.pyx for more examples of how to use the various sig_*() functions.

Testing Interrupts

When writing Documentation Strings, one sometimes wants to check that certain code can be interrupted in a clean way. The best way to do this is to use alarm().

The following is an example of a doctest demonstrating that the function factor() can be interrupted:

sage: alarm(0.5); factor(10^1000 + 3)
Traceback (most recent call last):

Releasing the Global Interpreter Lock (GIL)

All the functions related to interrupt and signal handling do not require the Python GIL (if you don’t know what this means, you can safely ignore this section), they are declared nogil. This means that they can be used in Cython code inside with nogil blocks. If sig_on() needs to raise an exception, the GIL is temporarily acquired internally.

If you use C libraries without the GIL and you want to raise an exception before calling sig_error(), remember to acquire the GIL while raising the exception. Within Cython, you can use a with gil context.


The GIL should never be released or acquired inside a sig_on() block. If you want to use a with nogil block, put both sig_on() and sig_off() inside that block. When in doubt, choose to use sig_check() instead, which is always safe to use.

Unpickling Cython Code

Pickling for Python classes and extension classes, such as Cython, is different. This is discussed in the Python pickling documentation. For the unpickling of extension classes you need to write a __reduce__() method which typically returns a tuple (f, args, ...) such that f(*args) returns (a copy of) the original object. As an example, the following code snippet is the __reduce__() method from sage.rings.integer.Integer:

def __reduce__(self):
    This is used when pickling integers.


        sage: n = 5
        sage: t = n.__reduce__(); t
        (<built-in function make_integer>, ('5',))
        sage: t[0](*t[1])
        sage: loads(dumps(n)) == n
    # This single line below took me HOURS to figure out.
    # It is the *trick* needed to pickle Cython extension types.
    # The trick is that you must put a pure Python function
    # as the first argument, and that function must return
    # the result of unpickling with the argument in the second
    # tuple as input. All kinds of problems happen
    # if we don't do this.
    return sage.rings.integer.make_integer, (self.str(32),)