Hall Algebras

AUTHORS:

  • Travis Scrimshaw (2013-10-17): Initial version
class sage.algebras.hall_algebra.HallAlgebra(base_ring, q, prefix='H')

Bases: sage.combinat.free_module.CombinatorialFreeModule

The (classical) Hall algebra.

The (classical) Hall algebra over a commutative ring \(R\) with a parameter \(q \in R\) is defined to be the free \(R\)-module with basis \((I_\lambda)\), where \(\lambda\) runs over all integer partitions. The algebra structure is given by a product defined by

\[I_\mu \cdot I_\lambda = \sum_\nu P^{\nu}_{\mu, \lambda}(q) I_\nu,\]

where \(P^{\nu}_{\mu, \lambda}\) is a Hall polynomial (see hall_polynomial()). The unity of this algebra is \(I_{\emptyset}\).

The (classical) Hall algebra is also known as the Hall-Steinitz algebra.

We can define an \(R\)-algebra isomorphism \(\Phi\) from the \(R\)-algebra of symmetric functions (see SymmetricFunctions) to the (classical) Hall algebra by sending the \(r\)-th elementary symmetric function \(e_r\) to \(q^{r(r-1)/2} I_{(1^r)}\) for every positive integer \(r\). This isomorphism used to transport the Hopf algebra structure from the \(R\)-algebra of symmetric functions to the Hall algebra, thus making the latter a connected graded Hopf algebra. If \(\lambda\) is a partition, then the preimage of the basis element \(I_{\lambda}\) under this isomorphism is \(q^{n(\lambda)} P_{\lambda}(x; q^{-1})\), where \(P_{\lambda}\) denotes the \(\lambda\)-th Hall-Littlewood \(P\)-function, and where \(n(\lambda) = \sum_i (i - 1) \lambda_i\).

See section 2.3 in [Schiffmann], and sections II.2 and III.3 in [Macdonald1995] (where our \(I_{\lambda}\) is called \(u_{\lambda}\)).

EXAMPLES:

sage: R.<q> = ZZ[]
sage: H = HallAlgebra(R, q)
sage: H[2,1]*H[1,1]
H[3, 2] + (q+1)*H[3, 1, 1] + (q^2+q)*H[2, 2, 1] + (q^4+q^3+q^2)*H[2, 1, 1, 1]
sage: H[2]*H[2,1]
H[4, 1] + q*H[3, 2] + (q^2-1)*H[3, 1, 1] + (q^3+q^2)*H[2, 2, 1]
sage: H[3]*H[1,1]
H[4, 1] + q^2*H[3, 1, 1]
sage: H[3]*H[2,1]
H[5, 1] + q*H[4, 2] + (q^2-1)*H[4, 1, 1] + q^3*H[3, 2, 1]

We can rewrite the Hall algebra in terms of monomials of the elements \(I_{(1^r)}\):

sage: I = H.monomial_basis()
sage: H(I[2,1,1])
H[3, 1] + (q+1)*H[2, 2] + (2*q^2+2*q+1)*H[2, 1, 1]
 + (q^5+2*q^4+3*q^3+3*q^2+2*q+1)*H[1, 1, 1, 1]
sage: I(H[2,1,1])
I[3, 1] + (-q^3-q^2-q-1)*I[4]

The isomorphism between the Hall algebra and the symmetric functions described above is implemented as a coercion:

sage: R = PolynomialRing(ZZ, 'q').fraction_field()
sage: q = R.gen()
sage: H = HallAlgebra(R, q)
sage: e = SymmetricFunctions(R).e()
sage: e(H[1,1,1])
1/q^3*e[3]

We can also do computations with any special value of q, such as \(0\) or \(1\) or (most commonly) a prime power. Here is an example using a prime:

sage: H = HallAlgebra(ZZ, 2)
sage: H[2,1]*H[1,1]
H[3, 2] + 3*H[3, 1, 1] + 6*H[2, 2, 1] + 28*H[2, 1, 1, 1]
sage: H[3,1]*H[2]
H[5, 1] + H[4, 2] + 6*H[3, 3] + 3*H[4, 1, 1] + 8*H[3, 2, 1]
sage: H[2,1,1]*H[3,1]
H[5, 2, 1] + 2*H[4, 3, 1] + 6*H[4, 2, 2] + 7*H[5, 1, 1, 1]
 + 19*H[4, 2, 1, 1] + 24*H[3, 3, 1, 1] + 48*H[3, 2, 2, 1]
 + 105*H[4, 1, 1, 1, 1] + 224*H[3, 2, 1, 1, 1]
sage: I = H.monomial_basis()
sage: H(I[2,1,1])
H[3, 1] + 3*H[2, 2] + 13*H[2, 1, 1] + 105*H[1, 1, 1, 1]
sage: I(H[2,1,1])
I[3, 1] - 15*I[4]

If \(q\) is set to \(1\), the coercion to the symmetric functions sends \(I_{\lambda}\) to \(m_{\lambda}\):

sage: H = HallAlgebra(QQ, 1)
sage: H[2,1] * H[2,1]
H[4, 2] + 2*H[3, 3] + 2*H[4, 1, 1] + 2*H[3, 2, 1] + 6*H[2, 2, 2] + 4*H[2, 2, 1, 1]
sage: m = SymmetricFunctions(QQ).m()
sage: m[2,1] * m[2,1]
4*m[2, 2, 1, 1] + 6*m[2, 2, 2] + 2*m[3, 2, 1] + 2*m[3, 3] + 2*m[4, 1, 1] + m[4, 2]
sage: m(H[3,1])
m[3, 1]

We can set \(q\) to \(0\) (but should keep in mind that we don’t get the Schur functions this way):

sage: H = HallAlgebra(QQ, 0)
sage: H[2,1] * H[2,1]
H[4, 2] + H[3, 3] + H[4, 1, 1] - H[3, 2, 1] - H[3, 1, 1, 1]

TESTS:

The coefficients are actually Laurent polynomials in general, so we don’t have to work over the fraction field of \(\ZZ[q]\). This didn’t work before trac ticket #15345:

sage: R.<q> = LaurentPolynomialRing(ZZ)
sage: H = HallAlgebra(R, q)
sage: I = H.monomial_basis()
sage: hi = H(I[2,1]); hi
H[2, 1] + (1+q+q^2)*H[1, 1, 1]
sage: hi.parent() is H
True
sage: h22 = H[2]*H[2]; h22
H[4] - (1-q)*H[3, 1] + (q+q^2)*H[2, 2]
sage: h22.parent() is H
True
sage: e = SymmetricFunctions(R).e()
sage: e(H[1,1,1])
(q^-3)*e[3]

REFERENCES:

[Schiffmann](1, 2) Oliver Schiffmann. Lectures on Hall algebras. Arxiv 0611617v2.
class Element(M, x)

Bases: sage.combinat.free_module.CombinatorialFreeModuleElement

Create a combinatorial module element. This should never be called directly, but only through the parent combinatorial free module’s __call__() method.

TESTS:

sage: F = CombinatorialFreeModule(QQ, ['a','b','c'])
sage: B = F.basis()
sage: f = B['a'] + 3*B['c']; f
B['a'] + 3*B['c']
sage: f == loads(dumps(f))
True
scalar(y)

Return the scalar product of self and y.

The scalar product is given by

\[(I_{\lambda}, I_{\mu}) = \delta_{\lambda,\mu} \frac{1}{a_{\lambda}},\]

where \(a_{\lambda}\) is given by

\[a_{\lambda} = q^{|\lambda| + 2 n(\lambda)} \prod_k \prod_{i=1}^{l_k} (1 - q^{-i})\]

where \(n(\lambda) = \sum_i (i - 1) \lambda_i\) and \(\lambda = (1^{l_1}, 2^{l_2}, \ldots, m^{l_m})\).

Note that \(a_{\lambda}\) can be interpreted as the number of automorphisms of a certain object in a category corresponding to \(\lambda\). See Lemma 2.8 in [Schiffmann] for details.

EXAMPLES:

sage: R.<q> = ZZ[]
sage: H = HallAlgebra(R, q)
sage: H[1].scalar(H[1])
1/(q - 1)
sage: H[2].scalar(H[2])
1/(q^2 - q)
sage: H[2,1].scalar(H[2,1])
1/(q^5 - 2*q^4 + q^3)
sage: H[1,1,1,1].scalar(H[1,1,1,1])
1/(q^16 - q^15 - q^14 + 2*q^11 - q^8 - q^7 + q^6)
sage: H.an_element().scalar(H.an_element())
(4*q^2 + 9)/(q^2 - q)
HallAlgebra.antipode_on_basis(la)

Return the antipode of the basis element indexed by la.

EXAMPLES:

sage: R = PolynomialRing(ZZ, 'q').fraction_field()
sage: q = R.gen()
sage: H = HallAlgebra(R, q)
sage: H.antipode_on_basis(Partition([1,1]))
1/q*H[2] + 1/q*H[1, 1]
sage: H.antipode_on_basis(Partition([2]))
-1/q*H[2] + ((q^2-1)/q)*H[1, 1]

sage: R.<q> = LaurentPolynomialRing(ZZ)
sage: H = HallAlgebra(R, q)
sage: H.antipode_on_basis(Partition([1,1]))
(q^-1)*H[2] + (q^-1)*H[1, 1]
sage: H.antipode_on_basis(Partition([2]))
-(q^-1)*H[2] - (q^-1-q)*H[1, 1]
HallAlgebra.coproduct_on_basis(la)

Return the coproduct of the basis element indexed by la.

EXAMPLES:

sage: R = PolynomialRing(ZZ, 'q').fraction_field()
sage: q = R.gen()
sage: H = HallAlgebra(R, q)
sage: H.coproduct_on_basis(Partition([1,1]))
H[] # H[1, 1] + 1/q*H[1] # H[1] + H[1, 1] # H[]
sage: H.coproduct_on_basis(Partition([2]))
H[] # H[2] + ((q-1)/q)*H[1] # H[1] + H[2] # H[]
sage: H.coproduct_on_basis(Partition([2,1]))
H[] # H[2, 1] + ((q^2-1)/q^2)*H[1] # H[1, 1] + 1/q*H[1] # H[2]
 + ((q^2-1)/q^2)*H[1, 1] # H[1] + 1/q*H[2] # H[1] + H[2, 1] # H[]

sage: R.<q> = LaurentPolynomialRing(ZZ)
sage: H = HallAlgebra(R, q)
sage: H.coproduct_on_basis(Partition([2]))
H[] # H[2] - (q^-1-1)*H[1] # H[1] + H[2] # H[]
sage: H.coproduct_on_basis(Partition([2,1]))
H[] # H[2, 1] - (q^-2-1)*H[1] # H[1, 1] + (q^-1)*H[1] # H[2]
 - (q^-2-1)*H[1, 1] # H[1] + (q^-1)*H[2] # H[1] + H[2, 1] # H[]
HallAlgebra.counit(x)

Return the counit of the element x.

EXAMPLES:

sage: R = PolynomialRing(ZZ, 'q').fraction_field()
sage: q = R.gen()
sage: H = HallAlgebra(R, q)
sage: H.counit(H.an_element())
2
HallAlgebra.monomial_basis()

Return the basis of the Hall algebra given by monomials in the \(I_{(1^r)}\).

EXAMPLES:

sage: R.<q> = ZZ[]
sage: H = HallAlgebra(R, q)
sage: H.monomial_basis()
Hall algebra with q=q over Univariate Polynomial Ring in q over
 Integer Ring in the monomial basis
HallAlgebra.one_basis()

Return the index of the basis element \(1\).

EXAMPLES:

sage: R.<q> = ZZ[]
sage: H = HallAlgebra(R, q)
sage: H.one_basis()
[]
HallAlgebra.product_on_basis(mu, la)

Return the product of the two basis elements indexed by mu and la.

EXAMPLES:

sage: R.<q> = ZZ[]
sage: H = HallAlgebra(R, q)
sage: H.product_on_basis(Partition([1,1]), Partition([1]))
H[2, 1] + (q^2+q+1)*H[1, 1, 1]
sage: H.product_on_basis(Partition([2,1]), Partition([1,1]))
H[3, 2] + (q+1)*H[3, 1, 1] + (q^2+q)*H[2, 2, 1] + (q^4+q^3+q^2)*H[2, 1, 1, 1]
sage: H.product_on_basis(Partition([3,2]), Partition([2,1]))
H[5, 3] + (q+1)*H[4, 4] + q*H[5, 2, 1] + (2*q^2-1)*H[4, 3, 1]
 + (q^3+q^2)*H[4, 2, 2] + (q^4+q^3)*H[3, 3, 2]
 + (q^4-q^2)*H[4, 2, 1, 1] + (q^5+q^4-q^3-q^2)*H[3, 3, 1, 1]
 + (q^6+q^5)*H[3, 2, 2, 1]
sage: H.product_on_basis(Partition([3,1,1]), Partition([2,1]))
H[5, 2, 1] + q*H[4, 3, 1] + (q^2-1)*H[4, 2, 2]
 + (q^3+q^2)*H[3, 3, 2] + (q^2+q+1)*H[5, 1, 1, 1]
 + (2*q^3+q^2-q-1)*H[4, 2, 1, 1] + (q^4+2*q^3+q^2)*H[3, 3, 1, 1]
 + (q^5+q^4)*H[3, 2, 2, 1] + (q^6+q^5+q^4-q^2-q-1)*H[4, 1, 1, 1, 1]
 + (q^7+q^6+q^5)*H[3, 2, 1, 1, 1]
class sage.algebras.hall_algebra.HallAlgebraMonomials(base_ring, q, prefix='I')

Bases: sage.combinat.free_module.CombinatorialFreeModule

The classical Hall algebra given in terms of monomials in the \(I_{(1^r)}\).

We first associate a monomial \(I_{(1^{r_1})} I_{(1^{r_2})} \cdots I_{(1^{r_k})}\) with the composition \((r_1, r_2, \ldots, r_k)\). However since \(I_{(1^r)}\) commutes with \(I_{(1^s)}\), the basis is indexed by partitions.

EXAMPLES:

We use the fraction field of \(\ZZ[q]\) for our initial example:

sage: R = PolynomialRing(ZZ, 'q').fraction_field()
sage: q = R.gen()
sage: H = HallAlgebra(R, q)
sage: I = H.monomial_basis()

We check that the basis conversions are mutually inverse:

sage: all(H(I(H[p])) == H[p] for i in range(7) for p in Partitions(i))
True
sage: all(I(H(I[p])) == I[p] for i in range(7) for p in Partitions(i))
True

Since Laurent polynomials are sufficient, we run the same check with the Laurent polynomial ring \(\ZZ[q, q^{-1}]\):

sage: R.<q> = LaurentPolynomialRing(ZZ)
sage: H = HallAlgebra(R, q)
sage: I = H.monomial_basis()
sage: all(H(I(H[p])) == H[p] for i in range(6) for p in Partitions(i)) # long time
True
sage: all(I(H(I[p])) == I[p] for i in range(6) for p in Partitions(i)) # long time
True

We can also convert to the symmetric functions. The natural basis corresponds to the Hall-Littlewood basis (up to a renormalization and an inversion of the \(q\) parameter), and this basis corresponds to the elementary basis (up to a renormalization):

sage: Sym = SymmetricFunctions(R)
sage: e = Sym.e()
sage: e(I[2,1])
(q^-1)*e[2, 1]
sage: e(I[4,2,2,1])
(q^-8)*e[4, 2, 2, 1]
sage: HLP = Sym.hall_littlewood(q).P()
sage: H(I[2,1])
H[2, 1] + (1+q+q^2)*H[1, 1, 1]
sage: HLP(e[2,1])
(1+q+q^2)*HLP[1, 1, 1] + HLP[2, 1]
sage: all( e(H[lam]) == q**-sum([i * x for i, x in enumerate(lam)])
....:          * e(HLP[lam]).map_coefficients(lambda p: p(q**(-1)))
....:      for lam in Partitions(4) )
True

We can also do computations using a prime power:

sage: H = HallAlgebra(ZZ, 3)
sage: I = H.monomial_basis()
sage: i_elt = I[2,1]*I[1,1]; i_elt
I[2, 1, 1, 1]
sage: H(i_elt)
H[4, 1] + 7*H[3, 2] + 37*H[3, 1, 1] + 136*H[2, 2, 1]
 + 1495*H[2, 1, 1, 1] + 62920*H[1, 1, 1, 1, 1]
class Element(M, x)

Bases: sage.combinat.free_module.CombinatorialFreeModuleElement

Create a combinatorial module element. This should never be called directly, but only through the parent combinatorial free module’s __call__() method.

TESTS:

sage: F = CombinatorialFreeModule(QQ, ['a','b','c'])
sage: B = F.basis()
sage: f = B['a'] + 3*B['c']; f
B['a'] + 3*B['c']
sage: f == loads(dumps(f))
True
scalar(y)

Return the scalar product of self and y.

The scalar product is computed by converting into the natural basis.

EXAMPLES:

sage: R.<q> = ZZ[]
sage: I = HallAlgebra(R, q).monomial_basis()
sage: I[1].scalar(I[1])
1/(q - 1)
sage: I[2].scalar(I[2])
1/(q^4 - q^3 - q^2 + q)
sage: I[2,1].scalar(I[2,1])
(2*q + 1)/(q^6 - 2*q^5 + 2*q^3 - q^2)
sage: I[1,1,1,1].scalar(I[1,1,1,1])
24/(q^4 - 4*q^3 + 6*q^2 - 4*q + 1)
sage: I.an_element().scalar(I.an_element())
(4*q^4 - 4*q^2 + 9)/(q^4 - q^3 - q^2 + q)
HallAlgebraMonomials.antipode_on_basis(a)

Return the antipode of the basis element indexed by a.

EXAMPLES:

sage: R = PolynomialRing(ZZ, 'q').fraction_field()
sage: q = R.gen()
sage: I = HallAlgebra(R, q).monomial_basis()
sage: I.antipode_on_basis(Partition([1]))
-I[1]
sage: I.antipode_on_basis(Partition([2]))
1/q*I[1, 1] - I[2]
sage: I.antipode_on_basis(Partition([2,1]))
-1/q*I[1, 1, 1] + I[2, 1]

sage: R.<q> = LaurentPolynomialRing(ZZ)
sage: I = HallAlgebra(R, q).monomial_basis()
sage: I.antipode_on_basis(Partition([2,1]))
-(q^-1)*I[1, 1, 1] + I[2, 1]
HallAlgebraMonomials.coproduct_on_basis(a)

Return the coproduct of the basis element indexed by a.

EXAMPLES:

sage: R = PolynomialRing(ZZ, 'q').fraction_field()
sage: q = R.gen()
sage: I = HallAlgebra(R, q).monomial_basis()
sage: I.coproduct_on_basis(Partition([1]))
I[] # I[1] + I[1] # I[]
sage: I.coproduct_on_basis(Partition([2]))
I[] # I[2] + 1/q*I[1] # I[1] + I[2] # I[]
sage: I.coproduct_on_basis(Partition([2,1]))
I[] # I[2, 1] + 1/q*I[1] # I[1, 1] + I[1] # I[2]
 + 1/q*I[1, 1] # I[1] + I[2] # I[1] + I[2, 1] # I[]

sage: R.<q> = LaurentPolynomialRing(ZZ)
sage: I = HallAlgebra(R, q).monomial_basis()
sage: I.coproduct_on_basis(Partition([2,1]))
I[] # I[2, 1] + (q^-1)*I[1] # I[1, 1] + I[1] # I[2]
 + (q^-1)*I[1, 1] # I[1] + I[2] # I[1] + I[2, 1] # I[]
HallAlgebraMonomials.counit(x)

Return the counit of the element x.

EXAMPLES:

sage: R = PolynomialRing(ZZ, 'q').fraction_field()
sage: q = R.gen()
sage: I = HallAlgebra(R, q).monomial_basis()
sage: I.counit(I.an_element())
2
HallAlgebraMonomials.one_basis()

Return the index of the basis element \(1\).

EXAMPLES:

sage: R.<q> = ZZ[]
sage: I = HallAlgebra(R, q).monomial_basis()
sage: I.one_basis()
[]
HallAlgebraMonomials.product_on_basis(a, b)

Return the product of the two basis elements indexed by a and b.

EXAMPLES:

sage: R.<q> = ZZ[]
sage: I = HallAlgebra(R, q).monomial_basis()
sage: I.product_on_basis(Partition([4,2,1]), Partition([3,2,1]))
I[4, 3, 2, 2, 1, 1]
sage.algebras.hall_algebra.transpose_cmp(x, y)

Compare partitions x and y in transpose dominance order.

We say partitions \(\mu\) and \(\lambda\) satisfy \(\mu \prec \lambda\) in transpose dominance order if for all \(i \geq 1\) we have:

\[l_1 + 2 l_2 + \cdots + (i-1) l_{i-1} + i(l_i + l_{i+1} + \cdots) \leq m_1 + 2 m_2 + \cdots + (i-1) m_{i-1} + i(m_i + m_{i+1} + \cdots),\]

where \(l_k\) denotes the number of appearances of \(k\) in \(\lambda\), and \(m_k\) denotes the number of appearances of \(k\) in \(\mu\).

Equivalently, \(\mu \prec \lambda\) if the conjugate of the partition \(\mu\) dominates the conjugate of the partition \(\lambda\).

Since this is a partial ordering, we fallback to lex ordering \(\mu <_L \lambda\) if we cannot compare in the transpose order.

EXAMPLES:

sage: from sage.algebras.hall_algebra import transpose_cmp
sage: transpose_cmp(Partition([4,3,1]), Partition([3,2,2,1]))
-1
sage: transpose_cmp(Partition([2,2,1]), Partition([3,2]))
1
sage: transpose_cmp(Partition([4,1,1]), Partition([4,1,1]))
0

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