Axioms

This documentation covers how to implement axioms and proceeds with an overview of the implementation of the axiom infrastructure. It assumes that the reader is familiar with the category primer, and in particular its section about axioms.

Implementing axioms

Simple case involving a single predefined axiom

Suppose that one wants to provide code (and documentation, tests, ...) for the objects of some existing category Cs() that satisfy some predefined axiom A.

The first step is to open the hood and check whether there already exists a class implementing the category Cs().A(). For example, taking Cs=Semigroups and the Finite axiom, there already exists a class for the category of finite semigroups:

sage: Semigroups().Finite()
Category of finite semigroups
sage: type(Semigroups().Finite())
<class 'sage.categories.finite_semigroups.FiniteSemigroups_with_category'>

In this case, we say that the category of semigroups implements the axiom Finite, and code about finite semigroups should go in the class FiniteSemigroups (or, as usual, in its nested classes ParentMethods, ElementMethods, and so on).

On the other hand, there is no class for the category of infinite semigroups:

sage: Semigroups().Infinite()
Category of infinite semigroups
sage: type(Semigroups().Infinite())
<class 'sage.categories.category.JoinCategory_with_category'>

This category is indeed just constructed as the intersection of the categories of semigroups and of infinite sets respectively:

sage: Semigroups().Infinite().super_categories()
[Category of semigroups, Category of infinite sets]

In this case, one needs to create a new class to implement the axiom Infinite for this category. This boils down to adding a nested class Semigroups.Infinite inheriting from CategoryWithAxiom.

In the following example, we implement a category Cs, with a subcategory for the objects satisfying the Finite axiom defined in the super category Sets (we will see later on how to define new axioms):

sage: from sage.categories.category_with_axiom import CategoryWithAxiom
sage: class Cs(Category):
....:     def super_categories(self):
....:         return [Sets()]
....:     class Finite(CategoryWithAxiom):
....:         class ParentMethods:
....:             def foo(self):
....:                 print "I am a method on finite C's"
sage: Cs().Finite()
Category of finite cs
sage: Cs().Finite().super_categories()
[Category of finite sets, Category of cs]
sage: Cs().Finite().all_super_categories()
[Category of finite cs, Category of finite sets,
 Category of cs, Category of sets, ...]
sage: Cs().Finite().axioms()
frozenset({'Finite'})

Now a parent declared in the category Cs().Finite() inherits from all the methods of finite sets and of finite \(C\)‘s, as desired:

sage: P = Parent(category=Cs().Finite())
sage: P.is_finite()             # Provided by Sets.Finite.ParentMethods
True
sage: P.foo()                   # Provided by Cs.Finite.ParentMethods
I am a method on finite C's

Note

  • This follows the same idiom as for Covariant Functorial Constructions.

  • From an object oriented point of view, any subcategory Cs() of Sets inherits a Finite method. Usually Cs could complement this method by overriding it with a method Cs.Finite which would make a super call to Sets.Finite and then do extra stuff.

    In the above example, Cs also wants to complement Sets.Finite, though not by doing more stuff, but by providing it with an additional mixin class containing the code for finite Cs. To keep the analogy, this mixin class is to be put in Cs.Finite.

  • By defining the axiom Finite, Sets fixes the semantic of Cs.Finite() for all its subcategories Cs: namely “the category of Cs which are finite as sets”. Hence, for example, Modules.Free.Finite cannot be used to model the category of free modules of finite rank, even though their traditional name “finite free modules” might suggest it.

  • It may come as a surprise that we can actually use the same name Finite for the mixin class and for the method defining the axiom; indeed, by default a class does not have a binding behavior and would completely override the method. See the section Defining a new axiom for details and the rationale behind it.

    An alternative would have been to give another name to the mixin class, like FiniteCategory. However this would have resulted in more namespace pollution, whereas using Finite is already clear, explicit, and easier to remember.

  • Under the hood, the category Cs().Finite() is aware that it has been constructed from the category Cs() by adding the axiom Finite:

    sage: Cs().Finite().base_category()
    Category of cs
    sage: Cs().Finite()._axiom
    'Finite'
    

Over time, the nested class Cs.Finite may become large and too cumbersome to keep as a nested subclass of Cs. Or the category with axiom may have a name of its own in the literature, like semigroups rather than associative magmas, or fields rather than commutative division rings. In this case, the category with axiom can be put elsewhere, typically in a separate file, with just a link from Cs:

sage: class Cs(Category):
....:     def super_categories(self):
....:         return [Sets()]
sage: class FiniteCs(CategoryWithAxiom):
....:     class ParentMethods:
....:         def foo(self):
....:             print "I am a method on finite C's"
sage: Cs.Finite = FiniteCs
sage: Cs().Finite()
Category of finite cs

For a real example, see the code of the class FiniteGroups and the link to it in Groups. Note that the link is implemented using LazyImport; this is highly recommended: it makes sure that FiniteGroups is imported after Groups it depends upon, and makes it explicit that the class Groups can be imported and is fully functional without importing FiniteGroups.

Note

Some categories with axioms are created upon Sage’s startup. In such a case, one needs to pass the at_startup=True option to LazyImport, in order to quiet the warning about that lazy import being resolved upon startup. See for example Sets.Finite.

This is undoubtedly a code smell. Nevertheless, it is preferable to stick to lazy imports, first to resolve the import order properly, and more importantly as a reminder that the category would be best not constructed upon Sage’s startup. This is to spur developers to reduce the number of parents (and therefore categories) that are constructed upon startup. Each at_startup=True that will be removed will be a measure of progress in this direction.

Note

In principle, due to a limitation of LazyImport with nested classes (see trac ticket #15648), one should pass the option as_name to LazyImport:

Finite = LazyImport('sage.categories.finite_groups', 'FiniteGroups', as_name='Finite')

in order to prevent Groups.Finite to keep on reimporting FiniteGroups.

Given that passing this option introduces some redundancy and is error prone, the axiom infrastructure includes a little workaround which makes the as_name unnecessary in this case.

Making the category with axiom directly callable

If desired, a category with axiom can be constructed directly through its class rather than through its base category:

sage: Semigroups()
Category of semigroups
sage: Semigroups() is Magmas().Associative()
True

sage: FiniteGroups()
Category of finite groups
sage: FiniteGroups() is Groups().Finite()
True

For this notation to work, the class Semigroups needs to be aware of the base category class (here, Magmas) and of the axiom (here, Associative):

sage: Semigroups._base_category_class_and_axiom
(<class 'sage.categories.magmas.Magmas'>, 'Associative')
sage: Fields._base_category_class_and_axiom
(<class 'sage.categories.division_rings.DivisionRings'>, 'Commutative')
sage: FiniteGroups._base_category_class_and_axiom
(<class 'sage.categories.groups.Groups'>, 'Finite')
sage: FiniteDimensionalAlgebrasWithBasis._base_category_class_and_axiom
(<class 'sage.categories.algebras_with_basis.AlgebrasWithBasis'>, 'FiniteDimensional')

In our example, the attribute _base_category_class_and_axiom was set upon calling Cs().Finite(), which makes the notation seemingly work:

sage: FiniteCs()
Category of finite cs
sage: FiniteCs._base_category_class_and_axiom
(<class '__main__.Cs'>, 'Finite')
sage: FiniteCs._base_category_class_and_axiom_origin
'set by __classget__'

But calling FiniteCs() right after defining the class would have failed (try it!). In general, one needs to set the attribute explicitly:

sage: class FiniteCs(CategoryWithAxiom):
....:     _base_category_class_and_axiom = (Cs, 'Finite')
....:     class ParentMethods:
....:         def foo(self):
....:             print "I am a method on finite C's"

Having to set explicitly this link back from FiniteCs to Cs introduces redundancy in the code. It would therefore be desirable to have the infrastructure set the link automatically instead (a difficulty is to achieve this while supporting lazy imported categories with axiom).

As a first step, the link is set automatically upon accessing the class from the base category class:

sage: Algebras.WithBasis._base_category_class_and_axiom
(<class 'sage.categories.algebras.Algebras'>, 'WithBasis')
sage: Algebras.WithBasis._base_category_class_and_axiom_origin
'set by __classget__'

Hence, for whatever this notation is worth, one can currently do:

sage: Algebras.WithBasis(QQ)
Category of algebras with basis over Rational Field

We don’t recommend using syntax like Algebras.WithBasis(QQ), as it may eventually be deprecated.

As a second step, Sage tries some obvious heuristics to deduce the link from the name of the category with axiom (see base_category_class_and_axiom() for the details). This typically covers the following examples:

sage: FiniteGroups()
Category of finite groups
sage: FiniteGroups() is Groups().Finite()
True
sage: FiniteGroups._base_category_class_and_axiom_origin
'deduced by base_category_class_and_axiom'

sage: FiniteDimensionalAlgebrasWithBasis(QQ)
Category of finite dimensional algebras with basis over Rational Field
sage: FiniteDimensionalAlgebrasWithBasis(QQ) is Algebras(QQ).FiniteDimensional().WithBasis()
True

If the heuristic succeeds, the result is guaranteed to be correct. If it fails, typically because the category has a name of its own like Fields, the attribute _base_category_class_and_axiom should be set explicitly. For more examples, see the code of the classes Semigroups or Fields.

Note

When printing out a category with axiom, the heuristic determines whether a category has a name of its own by checking out how _base_category_class_and_axiom was set:

sage: Fields._base_category_class_and_axiom_origin
'hardcoded'

See CategoryWithAxiom._without_axioms(), CategoryWithAxiom._repr_object_names_static().

In our running example FiniteCs, Sage failed to deduce automatically the base category class and axiom because the class Cs is not in the standard location sage.categories.cs.

Design discussion

The above deduction, based on names, is undoubtedly inelegant. But it’s safe (either the result is guaranteed to be correct, or an error is raised), it saves on some redundant information, and it is only used for the simple shorthands like FiniteGroups() for Groups().Finite(). Finally, most if not all of these shorthands are likely to eventually disappear (see trac ticket #15741 and the related discussion in the primer).

Defining a new axiom

We describe now how to define a new axiom. The first step is to figure out the largest category where the axiom makes sense. For example Sets for Finite, Magmas for Associative, or Modules for FiniteDimensional. Here we define the axiom Green for the category Cs and its subcategories:

sage: from sage.categories.category_with_axiom import CategoryWithAxiom
sage: class Cs(Category):
....:     def super_categories(self):
....:         return [Sets()]
....:     class SubcategoryMethods:
....:         def Green(self):
....:             '<documentation of the axiom Green>'
....:             return self._with_axiom("Green")
....:     class Green(CategoryWithAxiom):
....:         class ParentMethods:
....:             def foo(self):
....:                 print "I am a method on green C's"

With the current implementation, the name of the axiom must also be added to a global container:

sage: all_axioms = sage.categories.category_with_axiom.all_axioms
sage: all_axioms += ("Green",)

We can now use the axiom as usual:

sage: Cs().Green()
Category of green cs

sage: P = Parent(category=Cs().Green())
sage: P.foo()
I am a method on green C's

Compared with our first example, the only newcomer is the method .Green() that can be used by any subcategory Ds() of Cs() to add the axiom Green. Note that the expression Ds().Green always evaluates to this method, regardless of whether Ds has a nested class Ds.Green or not (an implementation detail):

sage: Cs().Green
<bound method Cs_with_category.Green of Category of cs>

Thanks to this feature (implemented in CategoryWithAxiom.__classget__()), the user is systematically referred to the documentation of this method when doing introspection on Ds().Green:

sage: C = Cs()
sage: C.Green?             # not tested
sage: Cs().Green.__doc__
'<documentation of the axiom Green>'

It is therefore the natural spot for the documentation of the axiom.

Note

The presence of the nested class Green in Cs is currently mandatory even if it is empty.

Todo

Specify whether or not one should systematically use @cached_method in the definition of the axiom. And make sure all the definition of axioms in Sage are consistent in this respect!

Todo

We could possibly define an @axiom decorator? This could hide two little implementation details: whether or not to make the method a cached method, and the call to _with_axiom(...) under the hood. It could do possibly do some more magic. The gain is not obvious though.

Note

all_axioms is only used marginally, for sanity checks and when trying to derive automatically the base category class. The order of the axioms in this tuple also controls the order in which they appear when printing out categories with axioms (see CategoryWithAxiom._repr_object_names_static()).

During a Sage session, new axioms should only be added at the end of all_axioms, as above, so as to not break the cache of axioms_rank(). Otherwise, they can be inserted statically anywhere in the tuple. For axioms defined within the Sage library, the name is best inserted by editing directly the definition of all_axioms in sage.categories.category_with_axiom.

Design note

Let us state again that, unlike what the existence of all_axioms might suggest, the definition of an axiom is local to a category and its subcategories. In particular, two independent categories Cs() and Ds() can very well define axioms with the same name and different semantics. As long as the two hierarchies of subcategories don’t intersect, this is not a problem. And if they do intersect naturally (that is if one is likely to create a parent belonging to both categories), this probably means that the categories Cs and Ds are about related enough areas of mathematics that one should clear the ambiguity by having either the same semantic or different names.

This caveat is no different from that of name clashes in hierarchy of classes involving multiple inheritance.

Todo

Explore ways to get rid of this global all_axioms tuple, and/or have automatic registration there, and/or having a register_axiom(...) method.

Special case: defining an axiom depending on several categories

In some cases, the largest category where the axiom makes sense is the intersection of two categories. This is typically the case for axioms specifying compatibility conditions between two otherwise unrelated operations, like Distributive which specifies a compatibility between \(*\) and \(+\). Ideally, we would want the Distributive axiom to be defined by:

sage: Magmas() & AdditiveMagmas()
Join of Category of magmas and Category of additive magmas

The current infrastructure does not support this perfectly: indeed, defining an axiom for a category \(C\) requires \(C\) to have a class of its own; hence a JoinCategory as above won’t do; we need to implement a new class like MagmasAndAdditiveMagmas; furthermore, we cannot yet model the fact that MagmasAndAdditiveMagmas() is the intersection of Magmas() and AdditiveMagmas() rather than a mere subcategory:

sage: from sage.categories.magmas_and_additive_magmas import MagmasAndAdditiveMagmas
sage: Magmas() & AdditiveMagmas() is MagmasAndAdditiveMagmas()
False
sage: Magmas() & AdditiveMagmas()             # todo: not implemented
Category of magmas and additive magmas

Still, there is a workaround to get the natural notations:

sage: (Magmas() & AdditiveMagmas()).Distributive()
Category of distributive magmas and additive magmas
sage: (Monoids() & CommutativeAdditiveGroups()).Distributive()
Category of rings

The trick is to define Distributive as usual in MagmasAndAdditiveMagmas, and to add a method Magmas.SubcategoryMethods.Distributive() which checks that self is a subcategory of both Magmas() and AdditiveMagmas(), complains if not, and otherwise takes the intersection of self with MagmasAndAdditiveMagmas() before calling Distributive.

The downsides of this workaround are:

  • Creation of an otherwise empty class MagmasAndAdditiveMagmas.

  • Pollution of the namespace of Magmas() (and subcategories like Groups()) with a method that is irrelevant (but safely complains if called).

  • C._with_axiom('Distributive') is not strictly equivalent to C.Distributive(), which can be unpleasantly surprising:

    sage: (Monoids() & CommutativeAdditiveGroups()).Distributive()
    Category of rings
    
    sage: (Monoids() & CommutativeAdditiveGroups())._with_axiom('Distributive')
    Join of Category of monoids and Category of commutative additive groups
    

Todo

Other categories that would be better implemented via an axiom depending on a join category include:

  • Algebras: defining an associative unital algebra as a ring and a module satisfying the suitable compatibility axiom between inner multiplication and multiplication by scalars (bilinearity). Of course this should be implemented at the level of MagmaticAlgebras, if not higher.
  • Bialgebras: defining an bialgebra as an algebra and coalgebra where the coproduct is a morphism for the product.
  • Bimodules: defining a bimodule as a left and right module where the two actions commute.

Todo

  • Design and implement an idiom for the definition of an axiom by a join category.
  • Or support more advanced joins, through some hook or registration process to specify that a given category is the intersection of two (or more) categories.
  • Or at least improve the above workaround to avoid the last issue; this possibly could be achieved using a class Magmas.Distributive with a bit of __classcall__ magic.

Handling multiple axioms, arborescence structure of the code

Prelude

Let us consider the category of magmas, together with two of its axioms, namely Associative and Unital. An associative magma is a semigroup and a unital semigroup is a monoid. We have also seen that axioms commute:

sage: Magmas().Unital()
Category of unital magmas
sage: Magmas().Associative()
Category of semigroups
sage: Magmas().Associative().Unital()
Category of monoids
sage: Magmas().Unital().Associative()
Category of monoids

At the level of the classes implementing these categories, the following comes as a general naturalization of the previous section:

sage: Magmas.Unital
<class 'sage.categories.magmas.Magmas.Unital'>
sage: Magmas.Associative
<class 'sage.categories.semigroups.Semigroups'>
sage: Magmas.Associative.Unital
<class 'sage.categories.monoids.Monoids'>

However, the following may look suspicious at first:

sage: Magmas.Unital.Associative
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
AttributeError: type object 'Magmas.Unital' has no attribute 'Associative'

The purpose of this section is to explain the design of the code layout and the rationale for this mismatch.

Abstract model

As we have seen in the Primer, the objects of a category Cs() can usually satisfy, or not, many different axioms. Out of all combinations of axioms, only a small number are relevant in practice, in the sense that we actually want to provide features for the objects satisfying these axioms.

Therefore, in the context of the category class Cs, we want to provide the system with a collection \((D_S)_{S\in \mathcal S}\) where each \(S\) is a subset of the axioms and the corresponding \(D_S\) is a class for the subcategory of the objects of Cs() satisfying the axioms in \(S\). For example, if Cs() is the category of magmas, the pairs \((S, D_S)\) would include:

{Associative}                 : Semigroups
{Associative, Unital}         : Monoids
{Associative, Unital, Inverse}: Groups
{Associative, Commutative}    : Commutative Semigroups
{Unital,      Inverse}        : Loops

Then, given a subset \(T\) of axioms, we want the system to be able to select automatically the relevant classes \((D_S)_{S\in \mathcal S, S\subset T}\), and build from them a category for the objects of Cs satisfying the axioms in \(T\), together with its hierarchy of super categories. If \(T\) is in the indexing set \(\mathcal S\), then the class of the resulting category is directly \(D_T\):

sage: C = Magmas().Unital().Inverse().Associative(); C
Category of groups
sage: type(C)
<class 'sage.categories.groups.Groups_with_category'>

Otherwise, we get a join category:

sage: C = Magmas().Infinite().Unital().Associative(); C
Category of infinite monoids
sage: type(C)
<class 'sage.categories.category.JoinCategory_with_category'>
sage: C.super_categories()
[Category of monoids, Category of infinite sets]

Concrete model as an arborescence of nested classes

We further want the construction to be efficient and amenable to laziness. This led us to the following design decision: the collection \((D_S)_{S\in \mathcal S}\) of classes should be structured as an arborescence (or equivalently a rooted forest). The root is Cs, corresponding to \(S=\emptyset\). Any other class \(D_S\) should be the child of a single class \(D_{S'}\) where \(S'\) is obtained from \(S\) by removing a single axiom \(A\). Of course, \(D_{S'}\) and \(A\) are respectively the base category class and axiom of the category with axiom \(D_S\) that we have met in the first section.

At this point, we urge the reader to explore the code of Magmas and DistributiveMagmasAndAdditiveMagmas and see how the arborescence structure on the categories with axioms is reflected by the nesting of category classes.

Discussion of the design

Performance

Thanks to the arborescence structure on subsets of axioms, constructing the hierarchy of categories and computing intersections can be made efficient with, roughly speaking, a linear/quadratic complexity in the size of the involved category hierarchy multiplied by the number of axioms (see Section Description of the algorithmic). This is to be put in perspective with the manipulation of arbitrary collections of subsets (aka boolean functions) which can easily raise NP-hard problems.

Furthermore, thanks to its locality, the algorithms can be made suitably lazy: in particular, only the involved category classes need to be imported.

Flexibility

This design also brings in quite some flexibility, with the possibility to support features such as defining new axioms depending on other axioms and deduction rules. See below.

Asymmetry

As we have seen at the beginning of this section, this design introduces an asymmetry. It’s not so bad in practice, since in most practical cases, we want to work incrementally. It’s for example more natural to describe FiniteFields as Fields with the axiom Finite rather than Magmas and AdditiveMagmas with all (or at least sufficiently many) of the following axioms:

sage: sorted(Fields().axioms())
['AdditiveAssociative', 'AdditiveCommutative', 'AdditiveInverse',
 'AdditiveUnital', 'Associative', 'Commutative', 'Distributive',
 'Division', 'NoZeroDivisors', 'Unital']

The main limitation is that the infrastructure currently imposes to be incremental by steps of a single axiom.

In practice, among the roughly 60 categories with axioms that are currently implemented in Sage, most admitted a (rather) natural choice of a base category and single axiom to add. For example, one usually thinks more naturally of a monoid as a semigroup which is unital rather than as a unital magma which is associative. Modeling this asymmetry in the code actually brings a bonus: it is used for printing out categories in a (heuristically) mathematician-friendly way:

sage: Magmas().Commutative().Associative()
Category of commutative semigroups

Only in a few cases is a choice made that feels mathematically arbitrary. This is essentially in the chain of nested classes distributive_magmas_and_additive_magmas.DistributiveMagmasAndAdditiveMagmas.AdditiveAssociative.AdditiveCommutative.AdditiveUnital.Associative.

Placeholder classes

Given that we can only add a single axiom at a time when implementing a CategoryWithAxiom, we need to create a few category classes that are just placeholders. For the worst example, see the chain of nested classes distributive_magmas_and_additive_magmas.DistributiveMagmasAndAdditiveMagmas.AdditiveAssociative.AdditiveCommutative.AdditiveUnital.Associative.

This is suboptimal, but fits within the scope of the axiom infrastructure which is to reduce a potentially exponential number of placeholder category classes to just a couple.

Note also that, in the above example, it’s likely that some of the intermediate classes will grow to non placeholder ones, as people will explore more weaker variants of rings.

Mismatch between the arborescence of nested classes and the hierarchy of categories

The fact that the hierarchy relation between categories is not reflected directly as a relation between the classes may sound suspicious at first! However, as mentioned in the primer, this is actually a big selling point of the axioms infrastructure: by calculating automatically the hierarchy relation between categories with axioms one avoids the nightmare of maintaining it by hand. Instead, only a rather minimal number of links needs to be maintainted in the code (one per category with axiom).

Besides, with the flexibility introduced by runtime deduction rules (see below), the hierarchy of categories may depend on the parameters of the categories and not just their class. So it’s fine to make it clear from the onset that the two relations do not match.

Evolutivity

At this point, the arborescence structure has to be hardcoded by hand with the annoyances we have seen. This does not preclude, in a future iteration, to design and implement some idiom for categories with axioms that adds several axioms at once to a base category; maybe some variation around:

class DistributiveMagmasAndAdditiveMagmas:
    ...

    @category_with_axiom(
        AdditiveAssociative,
        AdditiveCommutative,
        AdditiveUnital,
        AdditiveInverse,
        Associative)
    def _(): return LazyImport('sage.categories.rngs', 'Rngs', at_startup=True)

or:

register_axiom_category(DistributiveMagmasAndAdditiveMagmas,
                        {AdditiveAssociative,
                         AdditiveCommutative,
                         AdditiveUnital,
                         AdditiveInverse,
                         Associative},
                        'sage.categories.rngs', 'Rngs', at_startup=True)

The infrastructure would then be in charge of building the appropriate arborescence under the hood. Or rely on some database (see discussion on trac ticket #10963, in particular at the end of comment 332).

Axioms defined upon other axioms

Sometimes an axiom can only be defined when some other axiom holds. For example, the axiom NoZeroDivisors only makes sense if there is a zero, that is if the axiom AdditiveUnital holds. Hence, for the category MagmasAndAdditiveMagmas, we consider in the abstract model only those subsets of axioms where the presence of NoZeroDivisors implies that of AdditiveUnital. We also want the axiom to be only available if meaningful:

sage: Rings().NoZeroDivisors()
Category of domains
sage: Rings().Commutative().NoZeroDivisors()
Category of integral domains
sage: Semirings().NoZeroDivisors()
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
AttributeError: 'Semirings_with_category' object has no attribute 'NoZeroDivisors'

Concretely, this is to be implemented by defining the new axiom in the (SubcategoryMethods nested class of the) appropriate category with axiom. For example the axiom NoZeroDivisors would be naturally defined in magmas_and_additive_magmas.MagmasAndAdditiveMagmas.Distributive.AdditiveUnital.

Note

The axiom NoZeroDivisors is currently defined in Rings, by simple lack of need for the feature; it should be lifted up as soon as relevant, that is when some code will be available for parents with no zero divisors that are not necessarily rings.

Deduction rules

A similar situation is when an axiom A of a category Cs implies some other axiom B, with the same consequence as above on the subsets of axioms appearing in the abstract model. For example, a division ring necessarily has no zero divisors:

sage: 'NoZeroDivisors' in Rings().Division().axioms()
True
sage: 'NoZeroDivisors' in Rings().axioms()
False

This deduction rule is implemented by the method Rings.Division.extra_super_categories():

sage: Rings().Division().extra_super_categories()
(Category of domains,)

In general, this is to be implemented by a method Cs.A.extra_super_categories returning a tuple (Cs().B(),), or preferably (Ds().B(),) where Ds is the category defining the axiom B.

This follows the same idiom as for deduction rules about functorial constructions (see covariant_functorial_construction.CovariantConstructionCategory.extra_super_categories()). For example, the fact that a cartesian product of associative magmas (i.e. of semigroups) is an associative magma is implemented in Semigroups.CartesianProducts.extra_super_categories():

sage: Magmas().Associative()
Category of semigroups
sage: Magmas().Associative().CartesianProducts().extra_super_categories()
[Category of semigroups]

Similarly, the fact that the algebra of a commutative magma is commutative is implemented in Magmas.Commutative.Algebras.extra_super_categories():

sage: Magmas().Commutative().Algebras(QQ).extra_super_categories()
[Category of commutative magmas]

Warning

In some situations this idiom is inapplicable as it would require to implement two classes for the same category. This is the purpose of the next section.

Special case

In the previous examples, the deduction rule only had an influence on the super categories of the category with axiom being constructed. For example, when constructing Rings().Division(), the rule Rings.Division.extra_super_categories() simply adds Rings().NoZeroDivisors() as a super category thereof.

In some situations this idiom is inapplicable because a class for the category with axiom under construction already exists elsewhere. Take for example Wedderburn’s theorem: any finite division ring is commutative, i.e. is a finite field. In other words, DivisionRings().Finite() coincides with Fields().Finite():

sage: DivisionRings().Finite()
Category of finite fields
sage: DivisionRings().Finite() is Fields().Finite()
True

Therefore we cannot create a class DivisionRings.Finite to hold the desired extra_super_categories method, because there is already a class for this category with axiom, namely Fields.Finite.

A natural idiom would be to have DivisionRings.Finite be a link to Fields.Finite (locally introducing an undirected cycle in the arborescence of nested classes). It would be a bit tricky to implement though, since one would need to detect, upon constructing DivisionRings().Finite(), that DivisionRings.Finite is actually Fields.Finite, in order to construct appropriately Fields().Finite(); and reciprocally, upon computing the super categories of Fields().Finite(), to not try to add DivisionRings().Finite() as a super category.

Instead the current idiom is to have a method DivisionRings.Finite_extra_super_categories which mimicks the behavior of the would-be DivisionRings.Finite.extra_super_categories:

sage: DivisionRings().Finite_extra_super_categories()
(Category of commutative magmas,)

This idiom is admittedly rudimentary, but consistent with how mathematical facts specifying non trivial inclusion relations between categories are implemented elsewhere in the various extra_super_categories methods of axiom categories and covariant functorial constructions. Besides, it gives a natural spot (the docstring of the method) to document and test the modeling of the mathematical fact. Finally, Wedderburn’s theorem is arguably a theorem about division rings (in the context of division rings, finiteness implies commutativity) and therefore lives naturally in DivisionRings.

An alternative would be to implement the category of finite division rings (i.e. finite fields) in a class DivisionRings.Finite rather than Fields.Finite:

sage: from sage.categories.category_with_axiom import CategoryWithAxiom

sage: class MyDivisionRings(Category):
....:     def super_categories(self):
....:         return [Rings()]

sage: class MyFields(Category):
....:     def super_categories(self):
....:         return [MyDivisionRings()]

sage: class MyFiniteFields(CategoryWithAxiom):
....:     _base_category_class_and_axiom = (MyDivisionRings, "Finite")
....:     def extra_super_categories(self): # Wedderburn's theorem
....:         return [MyFields()]

sage: MyDivisionRings.Finite = MyFiniteFields

sage: MyDivisionRings().Finite()
Category of my finite fields
sage: MyFields().Finite() is MyDivisionRings().Finite()
True

In general, if several categories C1s(), C2s(), ... are mapped to the same category when applying some axiom A (that is C1s().A() == C2s().A() == ...), then one should be careful to implement this category in a single class Cs.A, and set up methods extra_super_categories or A_extra_super_categories methods as appropriate. Each such method should return something like [C2s()] and not [C2s().A()] for the latter would likely lead to an infinite recursion.

Design discussion

Supporting similar deduction rules will be an important feature in the future, with quite a few occurences already implemented in upcoming tickets. For the time being though there is a single occurrence of this idiom outside of the tests. So this would be an easy thing to refactor after trac ticket #10963 if a better idiom is found.

Larger synthetic examples

We now consider some larger synthetic examples to check that the machinery works as expected. Let us start with a category defining a bunch of axioms, using axiom() for conciseness (don’t do it for real axioms; they deserve a full documentation!):

sage: from sage.categories.category_singleton import Category_singleton
sage: from sage.categories.category_with_axiom import axiom
sage: import sage.categories.category_with_axiom
sage: all_axioms = sage.categories.category_with_axiom.all_axioms
sage: all_axioms += ("B","C","D","E","F")

sage: class As(Category_singleton):
....:     def super_categories(self):
....:         return [Objects()]
....:
....:     class SubcategoryMethods:
....:         B = axiom("B")
....:         C = axiom("C")
....:         D = axiom("D")
....:         E = axiom("E")
....:         F = axiom("F")
....:
....:     class B(CategoryWithAxiom):
....:         pass
....:     class C(CategoryWithAxiom):
....:         pass
....:     class D(CategoryWithAxiom):
....:         pass
....:     class E(CategoryWithAxiom):
....:         pass
....:     class F(CategoryWithAxiom):
....:         pass

Now we construct a subcategory where, by some theorem of William, axioms B and C together are equivalent to E and F together:

sage: class A1s(Category_singleton):
....:     def super_categories(self):
....:         return [As()]
....:
....:     class B(CategoryWithAxiom):
....:         def C_extra_super_categories(self):
....:             return [As().E(), As().F()]
....:
....:     class E(CategoryWithAxiom):
....:         def F_extra_super_categories(self):
....:             return [As().B(), As().C()]

sage: A1s().B().C()
Category of e f a1s

The axioms B and C do not show up in the name of the obtained category because, for concision, the printing uses some heuristics to not show axioms that are implied by others. But they are satisfied:

sage: sorted(A1s().B().C().axioms())
['B', 'C', 'E', 'F']

Note also that this is a join category:

sage: type(A1s().B().C())
<class 'sage.categories.category.JoinCategory_with_category'>
sage: A1s().B().C().super_categories()
[Category of e a1s,
 Category of f as,
 Category of b a1s,
 Category of c as]

As desired, William’s theorem holds:

sage: A1s().B().C() is A1s().E().F()
True

and propagates appropriately to subcategories:

sage: C =  A1s().E().F().D().B().C()
sage: C is A1s().B().C().E().F().D()  # commutativity
True
sage: C is A1s().E().F().E().F().D()  # William's theorem
True
sage: C is A1s().E().E().F().F().D()  # commutativity
True
sage: C is A1s().E().F().D()          # idempotency
True
sage: C is A1s().D().E().F()
True

In this quick variant, we actually implement the category of b c a2s, and choose to do so in A2s.B.C:

sage: class A2s(Category_singleton):
....:     def super_categories(self):
....:         return [As()]
....:
....:     class B(CategoryWithAxiom):
....:         class C(CategoryWithAxiom):
....:             def extra_super_categories(self):
....:                 return [As().E(), As().F()]
....:
....:     class E(CategoryWithAxiom):
....:         def F_extra_super_categories(self):
....:             return [As().B(), As().C()]


sage: A2s().B().C()
Category of e f a2s
sage: sorted(A2s().B().C().axioms())
['B', 'C', 'E', 'F']
sage: type(A2s().B().C())
<class '__main__.A2s.B.C_with_category'>

As desired, William’s theorem and its consequences hold:

sage: A2s().B().C() is A2s().E().F()
True
sage: C =  A2s().E().F().D().B().C()
sage: C is A2s().B().C().E().F().D()  # commutativity
True
sage: C is A2s().E().F().E().F().D()  # William's theorem
True
sage: C is A2s().E().E().F().F().D()  # commutativity
True
sage: C is A2s().E().F().D()          # idempotency
True
sage: C is A2s().D().E().F()
True

Finally, we “accidentally” implement the category of b c a1s, both in A3s.B.C and A3s.E.F:

sage: class A3s(Category_singleton):
....:     def super_categories(self):
....:         return [As()]
....:
....:     class B(CategoryWithAxiom):
....:         class C(CategoryWithAxiom):
....:             def extra_super_categories(self):
....:                 return [As().E(), As().F()]
....:
....:     class E(CategoryWithAxiom):
....:         class F(CategoryWithAxiom):
....:             def extra_super_categories(self):
....:                 return [As().B(), As().C()]

We can still construct, say:

sage: A3s().B()
Category of b a3s
sage: A3s().C()
Category of c a3s

However,

sage: A3s().B().C()           # not tested

runs into an infinite recursion loop, as A3s().B().C() wants to have A3s().E().F() as super category and reciprocally.

Todo

The above example violates the specifications (a category should be modelled by at most one class), so it’s appropriate that it fails. Yet, the error message could be usefully complemented by some hint at what the source of the problem is (a category implemented in two distinct classes). Leaving a large enough piece of the backtrace would be useful though, so that one can explore where the issue comes from (e.g. with post mortem debugging).

Specifications

After fixing some vocabulary, we summarize here some specifications about categories and axioms.

The lattice of constructible categories

A mathematical category \(C\) is implemented if there is a class in Sage modelling it; it is constructible if it is either implemented, or is the intersection of implemented categories; in the latter case it is modelled by a JoinCategory. The comparison of two constructible categories with the Category.is_subcategory() method is supposed to model the comparison of the corresponding mathematical categories for inclusion of the objects (see On the category hierarchy: subcategories and super categories for details). For example:

sage: Fields().is_subcategory(Rings())
True

However this modelling may be incomplete. It can happen that a mathematical fact implying that a category \(A\) is a subcategory of a category \(B\) is not implemented. Still, the comparison should endow the set of constructible categories with a poset structure and in fact a lattice structure.

In this lattice, the join of two categories (Category.join()) is supposed to model their intersection. Given that we compare categories for inclusion, it would be more natural to call this operation the meet; blames go to me (Nicolas) for originally comparing categories by amount of structure rather than by inclusion. In practice, the join of two categories may be a strict super category of their intersection; first because this intersection might not be constructible; second because Sage might miss some mathematical information to recover the smallest constructible super category of the intersection.

Axioms

We say that an axiom A is defined by a category Cs() if Cs defines an appropriate method Cs.SubcategoryMethods.A, with the semantic of the axiom specified in the documentation; for any subcategory Ds(), Ds().A() models the subcategory of the objects of Ds() satisfying A. In this case, we say that the axiom A is defined for the category Ds(). Furthermore, Ds implements the axiom A if Ds has a category with axiom as nested class Ds.A. The category Ds() satisfies the axiom if Ds() is a subcategory of Cs().A() (meaning that all the objects of Ds() are known to satisfy the axiom A).

A digression on the structure of fibers when adding an axiom

Consider the application \(\phi_A\) which maps a category to its category of objects satisfying \(A\). Equivalently, \(\phi_A\) is computing the intersection with the defining category with axiom of \(A\). It follows immediately from the latter that \(\phi_A\) is a regressive endomorphism of the lattice of categories. It restricts to a regressive endomorphism Cs() |-> Cs().A() on the lattice of constructible categories.

This endomorphism may have non trivial fibers, as in our favorite example: DivisionRings() and Fields() are in the same fiber for the axiom Finite:

sage: DivisionRings().Finite() is Fields().Finite()
True

Consider the intersection \(S\) of such a fiber of \(\phi_A\) with the upper set \(I_A\) of categories that do not satisfy A. The fiber itself is a sublattice. However \(I_A\) is not guaranteed to be stable under intersection (though exceptions should be rare). Therefore, there is a priori no guarantee that \(S\) would be stable under intersection. Also it’s presumably finite, in fact small, but this is not guaranteed either.

Specifications

  • Any constructible category C should admit a finite number of larger constructible categories.

  • The methods super_categories, extra_super_categories, and friends should always return strict supercategories.

    For example, to specify that a finite division ring is a finite field, DivisionRings.Finite_extra_super_categories should not return Fields().Finite()! It could possibly return Fields(); but it’s preferable to return the largest category that contains the relevant information, in this case Magmas().Commutative(), and to let the infrastructure apply the derivations.

  • The base category of a CategoryWithAxiom should be an implemented category (i.e. not a JoinCategory). This is checked by CategoryWithAxiom._test_category_with_axiom().

  • Arborescent structure: Let Cs() be a category, and \(S\) be some set of axioms defined in some super categories of Cs() but not satisfied by Cs(). Suppose we want to provide a category with axiom for the elements of Cs() satisfying the axioms in \(S\). Then, there should be a single enumeration A1, A2, ..., Ak without repetition of axioms in \(S\) such that Cs.A1.A2....Ak is an implemented category. Furthermore, every intermediate step Cs.A1.A2....Ai with \(i\leq k\) should be a category with axiom having Ai as axiom and Cs.A1.A2....Ai-1 as base category class; this base category class should not satisfy Ai. In particular, when some axioms of \(S\) can be deduced from previous ones by deduction rules, they should not appear in the enumeration A1, A2, ..., Ak.

  • In particular, if Cs() is a category that satisfies some axiom A (e.g. from one of its super categories), then it should not implement that axiom. For example, a category class Cs can never have a nested class Cs.A.A. Similarly, applying the specification recursively, a category satisfying A cannot have a nested class Cs.A1.A2.A3.A where A1, A2, A3 are axioms.

  • A category can only implement an axiom if this axiom is defined by some super category. The code has not been systematically checked to support having two super categories defining the same axiom (which should of course have the same semantic). You are welcome to try, at your own risk. :-)

  • When a category defines an axiom or functorial construction A, this fixes the semantic of A for all the subcategories. In particular, if two categories define A, then these categories should be independent, and either the semantic of A should be the same, or there should be no natural intersection between the two hierarchies of subcategories.

  • Any super category of a CategoryWithParameters should either be a CategoryWithParameters or a Category_singleton.

  • A CategoryWithAxiom having a Category_singleton as base category should be a CategoryWithAxiom_singleton. This is handled automatically by CategoryWithAxiom.__init__() and checked in CategoryWithAxiom._test_category_with_axiom().

  • A CategoryWithAxiom having a Category_over_base_ring as base category should be a Category_over_base_ring. This currently has to be handled by hand, using CategoryWithAxiom_over_base_ring. This is checked in CategoryWithAxiom._test_category_with_axiom().

Todo

The following specifications would be desirable but are not yet implemented:

  • A functorial construction category (Graded, CartesianProducts, ...) having a Category_singleton as base category should be a CategoryWithAxiom_singleton.

    Nothing difficult to implement, but this will need to rework the current “no subclass of a concrete class” assertion test of Category_singleton.__classcall__().

  • Similarly, a covariant functorial construction category having a Category_over_base_ring as base category should be a Category_over_base_ring.

The following specification might be desirable, or not:

  • A join category involving a Category_over_base_ring should be a Category_over_base_ring. In the mean time, a base_ring method is automatically provided for most of those by Modules.SubcategoryMethods.base_ring().

Design goals

As pointed out in the primer, the main design goal of the axioms infrastructure is to subdue the potential combinatorial explosion of the category hierarchy by letting the developer focus on implementing a few bookshelves for which there is actual code or mathematical information, and let Sage compose dynamically and lazily these building blocks to construct the minimal hierarchy of classes needed for the computation at hand. This allows for the infrastructure to scale smoothly as bookshelves are added, extended, or reorganized.

Other design goals include:

  • Flexibility in the code layout: the category of, say, finite sets can be implemented either within the Sets category (in a nested class Sets.Finite), or in a separate file (typically in a class FiniteSets in a lazily imported module sage.categories.finite_sets).

  • Single point of truth: a theorem, like Wedderburn’s, should be implemented in a single spot.

  • Single entry point: for example, from the entry Rings, one can explore a whole range of related categories just by applying axioms and constructions:

    sage: Rings().Commutative().Finite().NoZeroDivisors()
    Category of finite integral domains
    sage: Rings().Finite().Division()
    Category of finite fields
    

    This will allow for progressively getting rid of all the entries like GradedHopfAlgebrasWithBasis which are polluting the global name space.

    Note that this is not about precluding the existence of multiple natural ways to construct the same category:

    sage: Groups().Finite()
    Category of finite groups
    sage: Monoids().Finite().Inverse()
    Category of finite groups
    sage: Sets().Finite() & Monoids().Inverse()
    Category of finite groups
    
  • Concise idioms for the users (adding axioms, ...)

  • Concise idioms and well highlighted hierarchy of bookshelves for the developer (especially with code folding)

  • Introspection friendly (listing the axioms, recovering the mixins)

Note

The constructor for instances of this class takes as input the base category. Hence, they should in principle be constructed as:

sage: FiniteSets(Sets())
Category of finite sets

sage: Sets.Finite(Sets())
Category of finite sets

None of these idioms are really practical for the user. So instead, this object is to be constructed using any of the following idioms:

sage: Sets()._with_axiom('Finite')
Category of finite sets
sage: FiniteSets()
Category of finite sets
sage: Sets().Finite()
Category of finite sets

The later two are implemented using respectively CategoryWithAxiom.__classcall__() and CategoryWithAxiom.__classget__().

Upcoming features

Description of the algorithmic

Computing joins

The workhorse of the axiom infrastructure is the algorithm for computing the join \(J\) of a set \(C_1, \ldots, C_k\) of categories (see Category.join()). Formally, \(J\) is defined as the largest constructible category such that \(J \subset C_i\) for all \(i\), and \(J \subset C.A()\) for every constructible category \(C \supset J\) and any axiom \(A\) satisfied by \(J\).

The join \(J\) is naturally computed as a closure in the lattice of constructible categories: it starts with the \(C_i\)‘s, gathers the set \(S\) of all the axioms satisfied by them, and repeteadly adds each axiom \(A\) to those categories that do not yet satisfy \(A\) using Category._with_axiom(). Due to deduction rules or (extra) super categories, new categories or new axioms may appear in the process. The process stops when each remaining category has been combined with each axiom. In practice, only the smallest categories are kept along the way; this is correct because adding an axiom is covariant: C.A() is a subcategory of D.A() whenever C is a subcategory of D.

As usual in such closure computations, the result does not depend on the order of execution. Futhermore, given that adding an axiom is an idempotent and regressive operation, the process is guaranteed to stop in a number of steps which is bounded by the number of super categories of \(J\). In particular, it is a finite process.

Todo

Detail this a bit. What could typically go wrong is a situation where, for some category C1, C1.A() specifies a category C2 as super category such that C2.A() specifies C3 as super category such that ...; this would clearly cause an infinite execution. Note that this situation violates the specifications since C1.A() is supposed to be a subcategory of C2.A(), ... so we would have an infinite increasing chain of constructible categories.

It’s reasonnable to assume that there is a finite number of axioms defined in the code. There remains to use this assumption to argue that any infinite execution of the algorithm would give rise to such an infinite sequence.

Adding an axiom

Let Cs be a category and A an axiom defined for this category. To compute Cs().A(), there are two cases.

Adding an axiom A to a category Cs() not implementing it

In this case, Cs().A() returns the join of:

  • Cs()
  • Bs().A() for every direct super category Bs() of Cs()
  • the categories appearing in Cs().A_extra_super_categories()

This is a highly recursive process. In fact, as such, it would run right away into an infinite loop! Indeed, the join of Cs() with Bs().A() would trigger the construction of Cs().A() and reciprocally. To avoid this, the Category.join() method itself does not use Category._with_axiom() to add axioms, but its sister Category._with_axiom_as_tuple(); the latter builds a tuple of categories that should be joined together but leaves the computation of the join to its caller, the master join calculation.

Adding an axiom A to a category Cs() implementing it

In this case Cs().A() simply constructs an instance \(D\) of Cs.A which models the desired category. The non trivial part is the construction of the super categories of \(D\). Very much like above, this includes:

  • Cs()
  • Bs().A() for every super category Bs() of Cs()
  • the categories appearing in D.extra_super_categories()

This by itself may not be sufficient, due in particular to deduction rules. On may for example discover a new axiom A1 satisfied by \(D\), imposing to add A1 to all of the above categories. Therefore the super categories are computed as the join of the above categories. Up to one twist: as is, the computation of this join would trigger recursively a recalculation of Cs().A()! To avoid this, Category.join() is given an optional argument to specify that the axiom A should not be applied to Cs().

Sketch of proof of correctness and evaluation of complexity

As we have seen, this is a highly recursive process! In particular, one needs to argue that, as long as the specifications are satisfied, the algorithm won’t run in an infinite recursion, in particular in case of deduction rule.

Theorem

Consider the construction of a category \(C\) by adding an axiom to a category (or computing of a join). Let \(H\) be the hierarchy of implemented categories above \(C\). Let \(n\) and \(m\) be respectively the number of categories and the number of inheritance edges in \(H\).

Assuming that the specifications are satisfied, the construction of \(C\) involves constructing the categories in \(H\) exactly once (and no other category), and at most \(n\) join calculations. In particular, the time complexity should be, roughly speaking, bounded by \(n^2\). In particular, it’s finite.

Remark

It’s actually to be expected that the complexity is more of the order of magnitude of \(na+m\), where \(a\) is the number of axioms satisfied by \(C\). But this is to be checked in detail, in particular due to the many category inclusion tests involved.

The key argument is that Category.join cannot call itself recursively without going through the construction of some implemented category. In turn, the construction of some implemented category \(C\) only involves constructing strictly smaller categories, and possibly a direct join calculation whose result is strictly smaller than \(C\). This statement is obvious if \(C\) implements the super_categories method directly, and easy to check for functorial construction categories. It requires a proof for categories with axioms since there is a recursive join involved.

Lemma

Let \(C\) be a category implementing an axiom \(A\). Recall that the construction of C.A() involves a single direct join calculation for computing the super categories. No other direct join calculation occur, and the calculation involves only implemented categories that are strictly smaller than C.A().

Proof

Let \(D\) be a category involved in the join calculation for the super categories of C.A(), and assume by induction that \(D\) is strictly smaller than C.A(). A category \(E\) newly constructed from \(D\) can come from:

  • D.(extra_)super_categories()

    In this case, the specifications impose that \(E\) should be strictly smaller than \(D\) and therefore strictly smaller than \(C\).

  • D.with_axiom_as_tuple('B') or D.B_extra_super_categories() for some axiom \(B\)

    In this case, the axiom \(B\) is satisfied by some subcategory of C.A(), and therefore must be satisfied by C.A() itself. Since adding an axiom is a regressive construction, \(E\) must be a subcategory of C.A(). If there is equality, then \(E\) and C.A() must have the same class, and therefore, \(E\) must be directly constructed as C.A(). However the join construction explicitly prevents this call.

Note that a call to D.with_axiom_as_tuple('B') does not trigger a direct join calculation; but of course, if \(D\) implements \(B\), the construction of the implemented category E = D.B() will involve a strictly smaller join calculation.

Conclusion

This is the end of the axioms documentation. Congratulations on having read that far!

Tests

TESTS:

Note

Quite a few categories with axioms are constructed early on during Sage’s startup. Therefore, when playing around with the implementation of the axiom infrastructure, it is easy to break Sage. The following sequence of tests is designed to test the infrastructure from the ground up even in a partially broken Sage. Please don’t remove the imports!

sage: Magmas()
Category of magmas
sage: Magmas().Finite()
Category of finite magmas

sage: Magmas().Unital()
Category of unital magmas
sage: Magmas().Commutative().Unital()
Category of commutative unital magmas
sage: Magmas().Associative()
Category of semigroups
sage: Magmas().Associative() & Magmas().Unital().Inverse() & Sets().Finite()
Category of finite groups
sage: _ is Groups().Finite()
True

sage: from sage.categories.semigroups import Semigroups
sage: Semigroups()
Category of semigroups
sage: Semigroups().Finite()
Category of finite semigroups

sage: from sage.categories.modules_with_basis import ModulesWithBasis
sage: ModulesWithBasis(QQ) is Modules(QQ).WithBasis()
True
sage: ModulesWithBasis(ZZ) is Modules(ZZ).WithBasis()
True

sage: Semigroups().Unital()
Category of monoids
sage: Semigroups().Unital().Commutative()
Category of commutative monoids
sage: Semigroups().Commutative()
Category of commutative semigroups
sage: Semigroups().Commutative().Unital()
Category of commutative monoids
sage: Semigroups().Commutative().Unital().super_categories()
[Category of monoids, Category of commutative magmas]

sage: AdditiveMagmas().AdditiveAssociative().AdditiveCommutative()
Category of commutative additive semigroups

sage: from sage.categories.magmas_and_additive_magmas import MagmasAndAdditiveMagmas
sage: C = CommutativeAdditiveMonoids() & Monoids() & MagmasAndAdditiveMagmas().Distributive(); C
Category of semirings
sage: C is (CommutativeAdditiveMonoids() & Monoids()).Distributive()
True
sage: C.AdditiveInverse()
Category of rings
sage: Rings().axioms()
frozenset({'AdditiveAssociative',
           'AdditiveCommutative',
           'AdditiveInverse',
           'AdditiveUnital',
           'Associative',
           'Distributive',
           'Unital'})
sage: sorted(Rings().axioms())
['AdditiveAssociative', 'AdditiveCommutative', 'AdditiveInverse',
 'AdditiveUnital', 'Associative', 'Distributive', 'Unital']

sage: Domains().Commutative()
Category of integral domains

sage: DivisionRings().Finite() # Wedderburn's theorem
Category of finite fields

sage: FiniteMonoids().Algebras(QQ)
Join of Category of monoid algebras over Rational Field
    and Category of finite dimensional algebras with basis over Rational Field
    and Category of finite set algebras over Rational Field
sage: FiniteGroups().Algebras(QQ)
Join of Category of finite dimensional hopf algebras with basis over Rational Field
    and Category of group algebras over Rational Field
    and Category of finite set algebras over Rational Field
class sage.categories.category_with_axiom.Bars(s=None)

Bases: sage.categories.category_singleton.Category_singleton

A toy singleton category, for testing purposes.

See also

Blahs

Unital_extra_super_categories()

Return extraneous super categories for the unital objects of self.

This method specifies that a unital bar is a test object. Thus, the categories of unital bars and of unital test objects coincide.

EXAMPLES:

sage: from sage.categories.category_with_axiom import Bars, TestObjects
sage: Bars().Unital_extra_super_categories()
[Category of test objects]
sage: Bars().Unital()
Category of unital test objects
sage: TestObjects().Unital().all_super_categories()
[Category of unital test objects,
 Category of unital blahs,
 Category of test objects,
 Category of bars,
 Category of blahs,
 Category of sets,
 Category of sets with partial maps,
 Category of objects]
super_categories()

TESTS:

sage: from sage.categories.category_with_axiom import Bars
sage: Bars().super_categories()
[Category of blahs]
sage: TestSuite(Bars()).run()
class sage.categories.category_with_axiom.Blahs(s=None)

Bases: sage.categories.category_singleton.Category_singleton

A toy singleton category, for testing purposes.

This is the root of a hierarchy of mathematically meaningless categories, used for testing Sage’s category framework:

Blue_extra_super_categories()

Illustrates a current limitation in the way to have an axiom imply another one.

Here, we would want Blue to imply Unital, and to put the class for the category of unital blue blahs in Blahs.Unital.Blue rather than Blahs.Blue.

This currently fails because Blahs is the category where the axiom Blue is defined, and the specifications currently impose that a category defining an axiom should also implement it (here in an category with axiom Blahs.Blue). In practice, due to this violation of the specifications, the axiom is lost during the join calculation.

Todo

Decide whether we care about this feature. In such a situation, we are not really defining a new axiom, but just defining an axiom as an alias for a couple others, which might not be that useful.

Todo

Improve the infrastructure to detect and report this violation of the specifications, if this is easy. Otherwise, it’s not so bad: when defining an axiom A in a category Cs the first thing one is supposed to doctest is that Cs().A() works. So the problem should not go unnoticed.

TESTS:

sage: from sage.categories.category_with_axiom import Blahs, TestObjects, Bars
sage: Blahs().Blue_extra_super_categories()
[Category of unital blahs]
sage: Blahs().Blue()                          # todo: not implemented
Category of blue unital blahs
class Commutative(base_category)

Bases: sage.categories.category_with_axiom.CategoryWithAxiom

TESTS:

sage: C = Sets.Finite(); C
Category of finite sets
sage: type(C)
<class 'sage.categories.finite_sets.FiniteSets_with_category'>
sage: type(C).__base__.__base__
<class 'sage.categories.category_with_axiom.CategoryWithAxiom_singleton'>

sage: TestSuite(C).run()
class Blahs.Connected(base_category)

Bases: sage.categories.category_with_axiom.CategoryWithAxiom

TESTS:

sage: C = Sets.Finite(); C
Category of finite sets
sage: type(C)
<class 'sage.categories.finite_sets.FiniteSets_with_category'>
sage: type(C).__base__.__base__
<class 'sage.categories.category_with_axiom.CategoryWithAxiom_singleton'>

sage: TestSuite(C).run()
class Blahs.FiniteDimensional(base_category)

Bases: sage.categories.category_with_axiom.CategoryWithAxiom

TESTS:

sage: C = Sets.Finite(); C
Category of finite sets
sage: type(C)
<class 'sage.categories.finite_sets.FiniteSets_with_category'>
sage: type(C).__base__.__base__
<class 'sage.categories.category_with_axiom.CategoryWithAxiom_singleton'>

sage: TestSuite(C).run()
class Blahs.Flying(base_category)

Bases: sage.categories.category_with_axiom.CategoryWithAxiom

TESTS:

sage: C = Sets.Finite(); C
Category of finite sets
sage: type(C)
<class 'sage.categories.finite_sets.FiniteSets_with_category'>
sage: type(C).__base__.__base__
<class 'sage.categories.category_with_axiom.CategoryWithAxiom_singleton'>

sage: TestSuite(C).run()
extra_super_categories()

This illustrates a way to have an axiom imply another one.

Here, we want Flying to imply Unital, and to put the class for the category of unital flying blahs in Blahs.Flying rather than Blahs.Unital.Flying.

TESTS:

sage: from sage.categories.category_with_axiom import Blahs, TestObjects, Bars
sage: Blahs().Flying().extra_super_categories()
[Category of unital blahs]
sage: Blahs().Flying()
Category of flying unital blahs
class Blahs.SubcategoryMethods
Blue()

x.__init__(...) initializes x; see help(type(x)) for signature

Commutative()

x.__init__(...) initializes x; see help(type(x)) for signature

Connected()

x.__init__(...) initializes x; see help(type(x)) for signature

FiniteDimensional()

x.__init__(...) initializes x; see help(type(x)) for signature

Flying()

x.__init__(...) initializes x; see help(type(x)) for signature

Unital()

x.__init__(...) initializes x; see help(type(x)) for signature

class Blahs.Unital(base_category)

Bases: sage.categories.category_with_axiom.CategoryWithAxiom

TESTS:

sage: C = Sets.Finite(); C
Category of finite sets
sage: type(C)
<class 'sage.categories.finite_sets.FiniteSets_with_category'>
sage: type(C).__base__.__base__
<class 'sage.categories.category_with_axiom.CategoryWithAxiom_singleton'>

sage: TestSuite(C).run()
class Blue(base_category)

Bases: sage.categories.category_with_axiom.CategoryWithAxiom

TESTS:

sage: C = Sets.Finite(); C
Category of finite sets
sage: type(C)
<class 'sage.categories.finite_sets.FiniteSets_with_category'>
sage: type(C).__base__.__base__
<class 'sage.categories.category_with_axiom.CategoryWithAxiom_singleton'>

sage: TestSuite(C).run()
Blahs.super_categories()

TESTS:

sage: from sage.categories.category_with_axiom import Blahs
sage: Blahs().super_categories()
[Category of sets]
sage: TestSuite(Blahs()).run()
class sage.categories.category_with_axiom.CategoryWithAxiom(base_category)

Bases: sage.categories.category.Category

An abstract class for categories obtained by adding an axiom to a base category.

See the category primer, and in particular its section about axioms for an introduction to axioms, and CategoryWithAxiom for how to implement axioms and the documentation of the axiom infrastructure.

static __classcall__(*args, **options)

Make FoosBar(**) an alias for Foos(**)._with_axiom("Bar").

EXAMPLES:

sage: FiniteGroups()
Category of finite groups
sage: ModulesWithBasis(ZZ)
Category of modules with basis over Integer Ring
sage: AlgebrasWithBasis(QQ)
Category of algebras with basis over Rational Field

This is relevant when e.g. Foos(**) does some non trivial transformations:

sage: Modules(QQ) is VectorSpaces(QQ)
True
sage: type(Modules(QQ))
<class 'sage.categories.vector_spaces.VectorSpaces_with_category'>

sage: ModulesWithBasis(QQ) is VectorSpaces(QQ).WithBasis()
True
sage: type(ModulesWithBasis(QQ))
<class 'sage.categories.vector_spaces.VectorSpaces.WithBasis_with_category'>
static __classget__(base_category, base_category_class)

Implement the binding behavior for categories with axioms.

This method implements a binding behavior on category with axioms so that, when a category Cs implements an axiom A with a nested class Cs.A, the expression Cs().A evaluates to the method defining the axiom A and not the nested class. See those design notes for the rationale behind this behavior.

EXAMPLES:

sage: Sets().Infinite()
Category of infinite sets
sage: Sets().Infinite
Cached version of <function Infinite at ...>
sage: Sets().Infinite.f == Sets.SubcategoryMethods.Infinite.f
True

We check that this also works when the class is implemented in a separate file, and lazy imported:

sage: Sets().Finite
Cached version of <function Finite at ...>

There is no binding behavior when accessing Finite or Infinite from the class of the category instead of the category itself:

sage: Sets.Finite
<class 'sage.categories.finite_sets.FiniteSets'>
sage: Sets.Infinite
<class 'sage.categories.sets_cat.Sets.Infinite'>

This method also initializes the attribute _base_category_class_and_axiom if not already set:

sage: Sets.Infinite._base_category_class_and_axiom
(<class 'sage.categories.sets_cat.Sets'>, 'Infinite')
sage: Sets.Infinite._base_category_class_and_axiom_origin
'set by __classget__'
__init__(base_category)

TESTS:

sage: C = Sets.Finite(); C
Category of finite sets
sage: type(C)
<class 'sage.categories.finite_sets.FiniteSets_with_category'>
sage: type(C).__base__.__base__
<class 'sage.categories.category_with_axiom.CategoryWithAxiom_singleton'>

sage: TestSuite(C).run()
_repr_object_names()

The names of the objects of this category, as used by _repr_.

EXAMPLES:

sage: FiniteSets()._repr_object_names()
'finite sets'
sage: AlgebrasWithBasis(QQ).FiniteDimensional()._repr_object_names()
'finite dimensional algebras with basis over Rational Field'
sage: Monoids()._repr_object_names()
'monoids'
sage: Semigroups().Unital().Finite()._repr_object_names()
'finite monoids'
sage: Algebras(QQ).Commutative()._repr_object_names()
'commutative algebras over Rational Field'

Note

This is implemented by taking _repr_object_names from self._without_axioms(named=True), and adding the names of the relevant axioms in appropriate order.

static _repr_object_names_static(category, axioms)

INPUT:

  • base_category – a category
  • axioms – a list or iterable of strings

EXAMPLES:

sage: from sage.categories.category_with_axiom import CategoryWithAxiom
sage: CategoryWithAxiom._repr_object_names_static(Semigroups(), ["Flying", "Blue"])
'flying blue semigroups'
sage: CategoryWithAxiom._repr_object_names_static(Algebras(QQ), ["Flying", "WithBasis", "Blue"])
'flying blue algebras with basis over Rational Field'
sage: CategoryWithAxiom._repr_object_names_static(Algebras(QQ), ["WithBasis"])
'algebras with basis over Rational Field'
sage: CategoryWithAxiom._repr_object_names_static(Sets().Finite().Subquotients(), ["Finite"])
'subquotients of finite sets'
sage: CategoryWithAxiom._repr_object_names_static(Monoids(), ["Unital"])
'monoids'
sage: CategoryWithAxiom._repr_object_names_static(Algebras(QQ['x']['y']), ["Flying", "WithBasis", "Blue"])
'flying blue algebras with basis over Univariate Polynomial Ring in y over Univariate Polynomial Ring in x over Rational Field'

If the axioms is a set or frozen set, then they are first sorted using canonicalize_axioms():

sage: CategoryWithAxiom._repr_object_names_static(Semigroups(), set(["Finite", "Commutative", "Facade"]))
'facade finite commutative semigroups'

Note

The logic here is shared between _repr_object_names() and category.JoinCategory._repr_object_names()

TESTS:

sage: from sage.categories.homsets import Homsets
sage: CategoryWithAxiom._repr_object_names_static(Homsets(), ["Endset"])
'endsets'
_test_category_with_axiom(**options)

Run generic tests on this category with axioms.

See also

TestSuite.

This check that an axiom category of a Category_singleton is a singleton category, and similarwise for :class`Category_over_base_ring`.

EXAMPLES:

sage: Sets().Finite()._test_category_with_axiom()
sage: Modules(ZZ).FiniteDimensional()._test_category_with_axiom()
_without_axioms(named=False)

Return the category without the axioms that have been added to create it.

EXAMPLES:

sage: Sets().Finite()._without_axioms()
Category of sets
sage: Monoids().Finite()._without_axioms()
Category of magmas

This is because:

sage: Semigroups().Unital() is Monoids()
True

If named is True, then _without_axioms stops at the first category that has an explicit name of its own:

sage: Sets().Finite()._without_axioms(named=True)
Category of sets
sage: Monoids().Finite()._without_axioms(named=True)
Category of monoids

Technically we test this by checking if the class specifies explicitly the attribute _base_category_class_and_axiom by looking up _base_category_class_and_axiom_origin.

Some more examples:

sage: Algebras(QQ).Commutative()._without_axioms()
Category of magmatic algebras over Rational Field
sage: Algebras(QQ).Commutative()._without_axioms(named=True)
Category of algebras over Rational Field
additional_structure()

Return the additional structure defined by self.

OUTPUT: None

By default, a category with axiom defines no additional structure.

EXAMPLES:

sage: Sets().Finite().additional_structure() sage: Monoids().additional_structure()

TESTS:

sage: Sets().Finite().additional_structure.__module__
'sage.categories.category_with_axiom'
axioms()

Return the axioms known to be satisfied by all the objects of self.

EXAMPLES:

sage: C = Sets.Finite(); C
Category of finite sets
sage: C.axioms()
frozenset({'Finite'})

sage: C = Modules(GF(5)).FiniteDimensional(); C
Category of finite dimensional vector spaces over Finite Field of size 5
sage: sorted(C.axioms())
['AdditiveAssociative', 'AdditiveCommutative', 'AdditiveInverse',
 'AdditiveUnital', 'Finite', 'FiniteDimensional']

sage: sorted(FiniteMonoids().Algebras(QQ).axioms())
['AdditiveAssociative', 'AdditiveCommutative', 'AdditiveInverse',
 'AdditiveUnital', 'Associative', 'Distributive',
 'FiniteDimensional', 'Unital', 'WithBasis']
sage: sorted(FiniteMonoids().Algebras(GF(3)).axioms())
['AdditiveAssociative', 'AdditiveCommutative', 'AdditiveInverse',
 'AdditiveUnital', 'Associative', 'Distributive', 'Finite',
 'FiniteDimensional', 'Unital', 'WithBasis']

sage: from sage.categories.magmas_and_additive_magmas import MagmasAndAdditiveMagmas
sage: MagmasAndAdditiveMagmas().Distributive().Unital().axioms()
frozenset({'Distributive', 'Unital'})

sage: D = MagmasAndAdditiveMagmas().Distributive()
sage: X = D.AdditiveAssociative().AdditiveCommutative().Associative()
sage: X.Unital().super_categories()[1]
Category of monoids
sage: X.Unital().super_categories()[1] is Monoids()
True
base_category()

Return the base category of self.

EXAMPLES:

sage: C = Sets.Finite(); C
Category of finite sets
sage: C.base_category()
Category of sets
sage: C._without_axioms()
Category of sets

TESTS:

sage: from sage.categories.category_with_axiom import TestObjects, CategoryWithAxiom
sage: C = TestObjects().Commutative().Facade()
sage: assert isinstance(C, CategoryWithAxiom)
sage: C._without_axioms()
Category of test objects
extra_super_categories()

Return the extra super categories of a category with axiom.

Default implementation which returns [].

EXAMPLES:

sage: FiniteSets().extra_super_categories()
[]
super_categories()

Return a list of the (immediate) super categories of self, as per Category.super_categories().

This implements the property that if As is a subcategory of Bs, then the intersection of As with FiniteSets() is a subcategory of As and of the intersection of Bs with FiniteSets().

EXAMPLES:

sage: FiniteSets().super_categories()
[Category of sets]

sage: FiniteSemigroups().super_categories()
[Category of semigroups, Category of finite enumerated sets]

EXAMPLES:

A finite magma is both a magma and a finite set:

sage: Magmas().Finite().super_categories()
[Category of magmas, Category of finite sets]

TESTS:

sage: from sage.categories.category_with_axiom import TestObjects
sage: C = TestObjects().FiniteDimensional().Unital().Commutative().Finite()
sage: sorted(C.super_categories(), key=str)
[Category of finite commutative test objects,
 Category of finite dimensional commutative unital test objects,
 Category of finite finite dimensional test objects]
class sage.categories.category_with_axiom.CategoryWithAxiom_over_base_ring(base_category)

Bases: sage.categories.category_with_axiom.CategoryWithAxiom, sage.categories.category_types.Category_over_base_ring

TESTS:

sage: C = Modules(ZZ).FiniteDimensional(); C
Category of finite dimensional modules over Integer Ring
sage: type(C)
<class 'sage.categories.modules.Modules.FiniteDimensional_with_category'>
sage: type(C).__base__.__base__
<class 'sage.categories.category_with_axiom.CategoryWithAxiom_over_base_ring'>

sage: TestSuite(C).run()
class sage.categories.category_with_axiom.CategoryWithAxiom_singleton(base_category)

Bases: sage.categories.category_singleton.Category_singleton, sage.categories.category_with_axiom.CategoryWithAxiom

TESTS:

sage: C = Sets.Finite(); C
Category of finite sets
sage: type(C)
<class 'sage.categories.finite_sets.FiniteSets_with_category'>
sage: type(C).__base__.__base__
<class 'sage.categories.category_with_axiom.CategoryWithAxiom_singleton'>

sage: TestSuite(C).run()
class sage.categories.category_with_axiom.TestObjects(s=None)

Bases: sage.categories.category_singleton.Category_singleton

A toy singleton category, for testing purposes.

See also

Blahs

class Commutative(base_category)

Bases: sage.categories.category_with_axiom.CategoryWithAxiom

TESTS:

sage: C = Sets.Finite(); C
Category of finite sets
sage: type(C)
<class 'sage.categories.finite_sets.FiniteSets_with_category'>
sage: type(C).__base__.__base__
<class 'sage.categories.category_with_axiom.CategoryWithAxiom_singleton'>

sage: TestSuite(C).run()
class Facade(base_category)

Bases: sage.categories.category_with_axiom.CategoryWithAxiom

TESTS:

sage: C = Sets.Finite(); C
Category of finite sets
sage: type(C)
<class 'sage.categories.finite_sets.FiniteSets_with_category'>
sage: type(C).__base__.__base__
<class 'sage.categories.category_with_axiom.CategoryWithAxiom_singleton'>

sage: TestSuite(C).run()
class TestObjects.Commutative.Finite(base_category)

Bases: sage.categories.category_with_axiom.CategoryWithAxiom

TESTS:

sage: C = Sets.Finite(); C
Category of finite sets
sage: type(C)
<class 'sage.categories.finite_sets.FiniteSets_with_category'>
sage: type(C).__base__.__base__
<class 'sage.categories.category_with_axiom.CategoryWithAxiom_singleton'>

sage: TestSuite(C).run()
class TestObjects.Commutative.FiniteDimensional(base_category)

Bases: sage.categories.category_with_axiom.CategoryWithAxiom

TESTS:

sage: C = Sets.Finite(); C
Category of finite sets
sage: type(C)
<class 'sage.categories.finite_sets.FiniteSets_with_category'>
sage: type(C).__base__.__base__
<class 'sage.categories.category_with_axiom.CategoryWithAxiom_singleton'>

sage: TestSuite(C).run()
class TestObjects.FiniteDimensional(base_category)

Bases: sage.categories.category_with_axiom.CategoryWithAxiom

TESTS:

sage: C = Sets.Finite(); C
Category of finite sets
sage: type(C)
<class 'sage.categories.finite_sets.FiniteSets_with_category'>
sage: type(C).__base__.__base__
<class 'sage.categories.category_with_axiom.CategoryWithAxiom_singleton'>

sage: TestSuite(C).run()
class Finite(base_category)

Bases: sage.categories.category_with_axiom.CategoryWithAxiom

TESTS:

sage: C = Sets.Finite(); C
Category of finite sets
sage: type(C)
<class 'sage.categories.finite_sets.FiniteSets_with_category'>
sage: type(C).__base__.__base__
<class 'sage.categories.category_with_axiom.CategoryWithAxiom_singleton'>

sage: TestSuite(C).run()
class TestObjects.FiniteDimensional.Unital(base_category)

Bases: sage.categories.category_with_axiom.CategoryWithAxiom

TESTS:

sage: C = Sets.Finite(); C
Category of finite sets
sage: type(C)
<class 'sage.categories.finite_sets.FiniteSets_with_category'>
sage: type(C).__base__.__base__
<class 'sage.categories.category_with_axiom.CategoryWithAxiom_singleton'>

sage: TestSuite(C).run()
class Commutative(base_category)

Bases: sage.categories.category_with_axiom.CategoryWithAxiom

TESTS:

sage: C = Sets.Finite(); C
Category of finite sets
sage: type(C)
<class 'sage.categories.finite_sets.FiniteSets_with_category'>
sage: type(C).__base__.__base__
<class 'sage.categories.category_with_axiom.CategoryWithAxiom_singleton'>

sage: TestSuite(C).run()
class TestObjects.Unital(base_category)

Bases: sage.categories.category_with_axiom.CategoryWithAxiom

TESTS:

sage: C = Sets.Finite(); C
Category of finite sets
sage: type(C)
<class 'sage.categories.finite_sets.FiniteSets_with_category'>
sage: type(C).__base__.__base__
<class 'sage.categories.category_with_axiom.CategoryWithAxiom_singleton'>

sage: TestSuite(C).run()
TestObjects.super_categories()

TESTS:

sage: from sage.categories.category_with_axiom import TestObjects
sage: TestObjects().super_categories()
[Category of bars]
sage: TestSuite(TestObjects()).run()
class sage.categories.category_with_axiom.TestObjectsOverBaseRing(base, name=None)

Bases: sage.categories.category_types.Category_over_base_ring

A toy singleton category, for testing purposes.

See also

Blahs

class Commutative(base_category)

Bases: sage.categories.category_with_axiom.CategoryWithAxiom_over_base_ring

TESTS:

sage: C = Modules(ZZ).FiniteDimensional(); C
Category of finite dimensional modules over Integer Ring
sage: type(C)
<class 'sage.categories.modules.Modules.FiniteDimensional_with_category'>
sage: type(C).__base__.__base__
<class 'sage.categories.category_with_axiom.CategoryWithAxiom_over_base_ring'>

sage: TestSuite(C).run()
class Facade(base_category)

Bases: sage.categories.category_with_axiom.CategoryWithAxiom_over_base_ring

TESTS:

sage: C = Modules(ZZ).FiniteDimensional(); C
Category of finite dimensional modules over Integer Ring
sage: type(C)
<class 'sage.categories.modules.Modules.FiniteDimensional_with_category'>
sage: type(C).__base__.__base__
<class 'sage.categories.category_with_axiom.CategoryWithAxiom_over_base_ring'>

sage: TestSuite(C).run()
class TestObjectsOverBaseRing.Commutative.Finite(base_category)

Bases: sage.categories.category_with_axiom.CategoryWithAxiom_over_base_ring

TESTS:

sage: C = Modules(ZZ).FiniteDimensional(); C
Category of finite dimensional modules over Integer Ring
sage: type(C)
<class 'sage.categories.modules.Modules.FiniteDimensional_with_category'>
sage: type(C).__base__.__base__
<class 'sage.categories.category_with_axiom.CategoryWithAxiom_over_base_ring'>

sage: TestSuite(C).run()
class TestObjectsOverBaseRing.Commutative.FiniteDimensional(base_category)

Bases: sage.categories.category_with_axiom.CategoryWithAxiom_over_base_ring

TESTS:

sage: C = Modules(ZZ).FiniteDimensional(); C
Category of finite dimensional modules over Integer Ring
sage: type(C)
<class 'sage.categories.modules.Modules.FiniteDimensional_with_category'>
sage: type(C).__base__.__base__
<class 'sage.categories.category_with_axiom.CategoryWithAxiom_over_base_ring'>

sage: TestSuite(C).run()
class TestObjectsOverBaseRing.FiniteDimensional(base_category)

Bases: sage.categories.category_with_axiom.CategoryWithAxiom_over_base_ring

TESTS:

sage: C = Modules(ZZ).FiniteDimensional(); C
Category of finite dimensional modules over Integer Ring
sage: type(C)
<class 'sage.categories.modules.Modules.FiniteDimensional_with_category'>
sage: type(C).__base__.__base__
<class 'sage.categories.category_with_axiom.CategoryWithAxiom_over_base_ring'>

sage: TestSuite(C).run()
class Finite(base_category)

Bases: sage.categories.category_with_axiom.CategoryWithAxiom_over_base_ring

TESTS:

sage: C = Modules(ZZ).FiniteDimensional(); C
Category of finite dimensional modules over Integer Ring
sage: type(C)
<class 'sage.categories.modules.Modules.FiniteDimensional_with_category'>
sage: type(C).__base__.__base__
<class 'sage.categories.category_with_axiom.CategoryWithAxiom_over_base_ring'>

sage: TestSuite(C).run()
class TestObjectsOverBaseRing.FiniteDimensional.Unital(base_category)

Bases: sage.categories.category_with_axiom.CategoryWithAxiom_over_base_ring

TESTS:

sage: C = Modules(ZZ).FiniteDimensional(); C
Category of finite dimensional modules over Integer Ring
sage: type(C)
<class 'sage.categories.modules.Modules.FiniteDimensional_with_category'>
sage: type(C).__base__.__base__
<class 'sage.categories.category_with_axiom.CategoryWithAxiom_over_base_ring'>

sage: TestSuite(C).run()
class Commutative(base_category)

Bases: sage.categories.category_with_axiom.CategoryWithAxiom_over_base_ring

TESTS:

sage: C = Modules(ZZ).FiniteDimensional(); C
Category of finite dimensional modules over Integer Ring
sage: type(C)
<class 'sage.categories.modules.Modules.FiniteDimensional_with_category'>
sage: type(C).__base__.__base__
<class 'sage.categories.category_with_axiom.CategoryWithAxiom_over_base_ring'>

sage: TestSuite(C).run()
class TestObjectsOverBaseRing.Unital(base_category)

Bases: sage.categories.category_with_axiom.CategoryWithAxiom_over_base_ring

TESTS:

sage: C = Modules(ZZ).FiniteDimensional(); C
Category of finite dimensional modules over Integer Ring
sage: type(C)
<class 'sage.categories.modules.Modules.FiniteDimensional_with_category'>
sage: type(C).__base__.__base__
<class 'sage.categories.category_with_axiom.CategoryWithAxiom_over_base_ring'>

sage: TestSuite(C).run()
TestObjectsOverBaseRing.super_categories()

TESTS:

sage: from sage.categories.category_with_axiom import TestObjectsOverBaseRing
sage: TestObjectsOverBaseRing(QQ).super_categories()
[Category of test objects]
sage: TestObjectsOverBaseRing.Unital.an_instance()
Category of unital test objects over base ring over Rational Field
sage: TestObjectsOverBaseRing.FiniteDimensional.Unital.an_instance()
Category of finite dimensional unital test objects over base ring over Rational Field
sage: TestSuite(TestObjectsOverBaseRing(QQ).FiniteDimensional().Unital().Commutative()).run()
sage.categories.category_with_axiom.axiom(axiom)

Return a function/method self -> self._with_axiom(axiom).

This can used as a shorthand to define axioms, in particular in the tests below. Usually one will want to attach documentation to an axiom, so the need for such a shorthand in real life might not be that clear, unless we start creating lots of axioms.

In the long run maybe this could evolve into an @axiom decorator.

EXAMPLES:

sage: from sage.categories.category_with_axiom import axiom
sage: axiom("Finite")(Semigroups())
Category of finite semigroups

Upon assigning the result to a class this becomes a method:

sage: class As:
....:     def _with_axiom(self, axiom): return self, axiom
....:     Finite = axiom("Finite")
sage: As().Finite()
(<__main__.As instance at ...>, 'Finite')
sage.categories.category_with_axiom.axiom_of_nested_class(cls, nested_cls)

Given a class and a nested axiom class, return the axiom.

EXAMPLES:

This uses some heuristics like checking if the nested_cls carries the name of the axiom, or is built by appending or prepending the name of the axiom to that of the class:

sage: from sage.categories.category_with_axiom import TestObjects, axiom_of_nested_class
sage: axiom_of_nested_class(TestObjects, TestObjects.FiniteDimensional)
'FiniteDimensional'
sage: axiom_of_nested_class(TestObjects.FiniteDimensional, TestObjects.FiniteDimensional.Finite)
'Finite'
sage: axiom_of_nested_class(Sets, FiniteSets)
'Finite'
sage: axiom_of_nested_class(Algebras, AlgebrasWithBasis)
'WithBasis'

In all other cases, the nested class should provide an attribute _base_category_class_and_axiom:

sage: Semigroups._base_category_class_and_axiom
(<class 'sage.categories.magmas.Magmas'>, 'Associative')
sage: axiom_of_nested_class(Magmas, Semigroups)
'Associative'
sage.categories.category_with_axiom.base_category_class_and_axiom(cls)

Try to deduce the base category and the axiom from the name of cls.

The heuristic is to try to decompose the name as the concatenation of the name of a category and the name of an axiom, and looking up that category in the standard location (i.e. in sage.categories.hopf_algebras for HopfAlgebras, and in sage.categories.sets_cat as a special case for Sets).

If the heuristic succeeds, the result is guaranteed to be correct. Otherwise, an error is raised.

EXAMPLES:

sage: from sage.categories.category_with_axiom import base_category_class_and_axiom, CategoryWithAxiom
sage: base_category_class_and_axiom(FiniteSets)
(<class 'sage.categories.sets_cat.Sets'>, 'Finite')
sage: Sets.Finite
<class 'sage.categories.finite_sets.FiniteSets'>
sage: base_category_class_and_axiom(Sets.Finite)
(<class 'sage.categories.sets_cat.Sets'>, 'Finite')

sage: base_category_class_and_axiom(FiniteDimensionalHopfAlgebrasWithBasis)
(<class 'sage.categories.hopf_algebras_with_basis.HopfAlgebrasWithBasis'>, 'FiniteDimensional')

sage: base_category_class_and_axiom(HopfAlgebrasWithBasis)
(<class 'sage.categories.hopf_algebras.HopfAlgebras'>, 'WithBasis')

Along the way, this does some sanity checks:

sage: class FacadeSemigroups(CategoryWithAxiom):
....:     pass
sage: base_category_class_and_axiom(FacadeSemigroups)
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
AssertionError: Missing (lazy import) link for <class 'sage.categories.semigroups.Semigroups'> to <class '__main__.FacadeSemigroups'> for axiom Facade?

sage: Semigroups.Facade = FacadeSemigroups
sage: base_category_class_and_axiom(FacadeSemigroups)
(<class 'sage.categories.semigroups.Semigroups'>, 'Facade')

Note

In the following example, we could possibly retrieve Sets from the class name. However this cannot be implemented robustly until trac ticket #9107 is fixed. Anyway this feature has not been needed so far:

sage: Sets.Infinite
<class 'sage.categories.sets_cat.Sets.Infinite'>
sage: base_category_class_and_axiom(Sets.Infinite)
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
TypeError: Could not retrieve the base category class and axiom for <class 'sage.categories.sets_cat.Sets.Infinite'>.
...
sage.categories.category_with_axiom.uncamelcase(s, separator=' ')

EXAMPLES:

sage: sage.categories.category_with_axiom.uncamelcase("FiniteDimensionalAlgebras")
'finite dimensional algebras'
sage: sage.categories.category_with_axiom.uncamelcase("FiniteDimensionalAlgebras", "_")
'finite_dimensional_algebras'