Coalgebras

class sage.categories.coalgebras.Coalgebras(base, name=None)

Bases: sage.categories.category_types.Category_over_base_ring

The category of coalgebras

EXAMPLES:

sage: Coalgebras(QQ)
Category of coalgebras over Rational Field
sage: Coalgebras(QQ).super_categories()
[Category of vector spaces over Rational Field]

TESTS:

sage: TestSuite(Coalgebras(ZZ)).run()
class DualObjects(category, *args)

Bases: sage.categories.dual.DualObjectsCategory

TESTS:

sage: from sage.categories.covariant_functorial_construction import CovariantConstructionCategory
sage: class FooBars(CovariantConstructionCategory):
...       _functor_category = "FooBars"
sage: Category.FooBars = lambda self: FooBars.category_of(self)
sage: C = FooBars(ModulesWithBasis(ZZ))
sage: C
Category of foo bars of modules with basis over Integer Ring
sage: C.base_category()
Category of modules with basis over Integer Ring
sage: latex(C)
\mathbf{FooBars}(\mathbf{ModulesWithBasis}_{\Bold{Z}})
sage: import __main__; __main__.FooBars = FooBars # Fake FooBars being defined in a python module
sage: TestSuite(C).run()
extra_super_categories()

Return the dual category.

EXAMPLES:

The category of coalgebras over the Rational Field is dual to the category of algebras over the same field:

sage: C = Coalgebras(QQ)
sage: C.dual()
Category of duals of coalgebras over Rational Field
sage: C.dual().super_categories() # indirect doctest
[Category of algebras over Rational Field, Category of duals of vector spaces over Rational Field]

Warning

This is only correct in certain cases (finite dimension, ...). See trac ticket #15647.

class Coalgebras.ElementMethods
coproduct()

Returns the coproduct of self

EXAMPLES:

sage: A = HopfAlgebrasWithBasis(QQ).example(); A
An example of Hopf algebra with basis: the group algebra of the Dihedral group of order 6 as a permutation group over Rational Field
sage: [a,b] = A.algebra_generators()
sage: a, a.coproduct()
(B[(1,2,3)], B[(1,2,3)] # B[(1,2,3)])
sage: b, b.coproduct()
(B[(1,3)], B[(1,3)] # B[(1,3)])
counit()

Returns the counit of self

EXAMPLES:

sage: A = HopfAlgebrasWithBasis(QQ).example(); A
An example of Hopf algebra with basis: the group algebra of the Dihedral group of order 6 as a permutation group over Rational Field
sage: [a,b] = A.algebra_generators()
sage: a, a.counit()
(B[(1,2,3)], 1)
sage: b, b.counit()
(B[(1,3)], 1)
class Coalgebras.ParentMethods
coproduct(x)

Returns the coproduct of x.

Eventually, there will be a default implementation, delegating to the overloading mechanism and forcing the conversion back

EXAMPLES:

sage: A = HopfAlgebrasWithBasis(QQ).example(); A
An example of Hopf algebra with basis: the group algebra of the Dihedral group of order 6 as a permutation group over Rational Field
sage: [a,b] = A.algebra_generators()
sage: a, A.coproduct(a)
(B[(1,2,3)], B[(1,2,3)] # B[(1,2,3)])
sage: b, A.coproduct(b)
(B[(1,3)], B[(1,3)] # B[(1,3)])
counit(x)

Returns the counit of x.

Eventually, there will be a default implementation, delegating to the overloading mechanism and forcing the conversion back

EXAMPLES:

sage: A = HopfAlgebrasWithBasis(QQ).example(); A
An example of Hopf algebra with basis: the group algebra of the Dihedral group of order 6 as a permutation group over Rational Field
sage: [a,b] = A.algebra_generators()
sage: a, A.counit(a)
(B[(1,2,3)], 1)
sage: b, A.counit(b)
(B[(1,3)], 1)

TODO: implement some tests of the axioms of coalgebras, bialgebras and Hopf algebras using the counit.

tensor_square()

Returns the tensor square of self

EXAMPLES:

sage: A = HopfAlgebrasWithBasis(QQ).example()
sage: A.tensor_square()
An example of Hopf algebra with basis: the group algebra of the Dihedral group of order 6 as a permutation group over Rational Field # An example of Hopf algebra with basis: the group algebra of the Dihedral group of order 6 as a permutation group over Rational Field
class Coalgebras.Realizations(category, *args)

Bases: sage.categories.realizations.RealizationsCategory

TESTS:

sage: from sage.categories.covariant_functorial_construction import CovariantConstructionCategory
sage: class FooBars(CovariantConstructionCategory):
...       _functor_category = "FooBars"
sage: Category.FooBars = lambda self: FooBars.category_of(self)
sage: C = FooBars(ModulesWithBasis(ZZ))
sage: C
Category of foo bars of modules with basis over Integer Ring
sage: C.base_category()
Category of modules with basis over Integer Ring
sage: latex(C)
\mathbf{FooBars}(\mathbf{ModulesWithBasis}_{\Bold{Z}})
sage: import __main__; __main__.FooBars = FooBars # Fake FooBars being defined in a python module
sage: TestSuite(C).run()
class ParentMethods
coproduct_by_coercion(x)

Returns the coproduct by coercion if coproduct_by_basis is not implemented.

EXAMPLES:

sage: Sym = SymmetricFunctions(QQ)
sage: m = Sym.monomial()
sage: f = m[2,1]
sage: f.coproduct.__module__
'sage.categories.coalgebras'
sage: m.coproduct_on_basis
NotImplemented
sage: m.coproduct == m.coproduct_by_coercion
True
sage: f.coproduct()
m[] # m[2, 1] + m[1] # m[2] + m[2] # m[1] + m[2, 1] # m[]
sage: N = NonCommutativeSymmetricFunctions(QQ)
sage: R = N.ribbon()
sage: R.coproduct_by_coercion.__module__
'sage.categories.coalgebras'
sage: R.coproduct_on_basis
NotImplemented
sage: R.coproduct == R.coproduct_by_coercion
True
sage: R[1].coproduct()
R[] # R[1] + R[1] # R[]
class Coalgebras.TensorProducts(category, *args)

Bases: sage.categories.tensor.TensorProductsCategory

TESTS:

sage: from sage.categories.covariant_functorial_construction import CovariantConstructionCategory
sage: class FooBars(CovariantConstructionCategory):
...       _functor_category = "FooBars"
sage: Category.FooBars = lambda self: FooBars.category_of(self)
sage: C = FooBars(ModulesWithBasis(ZZ))
sage: C
Category of foo bars of modules with basis over Integer Ring
sage: C.base_category()
Category of modules with basis over Integer Ring
sage: latex(C)
\mathbf{FooBars}(\mathbf{ModulesWithBasis}_{\Bold{Z}})
sage: import __main__; __main__.FooBars = FooBars # Fake FooBars being defined in a python module
sage: TestSuite(C).run()
class ElementMethods
class Coalgebras.TensorProducts.ParentMethods
Coalgebras.TensorProducts.extra_super_categories()

EXAMPLES:

sage: Coalgebras(QQ).TensorProducts().extra_super_categories()
[Category of coalgebras over Rational Field]
sage: Coalgebras(QQ).TensorProducts().super_categories()
[Category of tensor products of vector spaces over Rational Field,
 Category of coalgebras over Rational Field]

Meaning: a tensor product of coalgebras is a coalgebra

Coalgebras.WithBasis

alias of CoalgebrasWithBasis

class Coalgebras.WithRealizations(category, *args)

Bases: sage.categories.with_realizations.WithRealizationsCategory

TESTS:

sage: from sage.categories.covariant_functorial_construction import CovariantConstructionCategory
sage: class FooBars(CovariantConstructionCategory):
...       _functor_category = "FooBars"
sage: Category.FooBars = lambda self: FooBars.category_of(self)
sage: C = FooBars(ModulesWithBasis(ZZ))
sage: C
Category of foo bars of modules with basis over Integer Ring
sage: C.base_category()
Category of modules with basis over Integer Ring
sage: latex(C)
\mathbf{FooBars}(\mathbf{ModulesWithBasis}_{\Bold{Z}})
sage: import __main__; __main__.FooBars = FooBars # Fake FooBars being defined in a python module
sage: TestSuite(C).run()
class ParentMethods
coproduct(x)

Returns the coproduct of x.

EXAMPLES:

sage: N = NonCommutativeSymmetricFunctions(QQ)
sage: S = N.complete()
sage: N.coproduct.__module__
'sage.categories.coalgebras'
sage: N.coproduct(S[2])
S[] # S[2] + S[1] # S[1] + S[2] # S[]
counit(x)

Returns the counit of x.

EXAMPLES:

sage: Sym = SymmetricFunctions(QQ)
sage: s = Sym.schur()
sage: f = s[2,1]
sage: f.counit.__module__
'sage.categories.coalgebras'
sage: f.counit()
0
sage: N = NonCommutativeSymmetricFunctions(QQ)
sage: N.counit.__module__
'sage.categories.coalgebras'
sage: N.counit(N.one())
1
sage: x = N.an_element(); x
2*S[] + 2*S[1] + 3*S[1, 1]
sage: N.counit(x)
2
Coalgebras.super_categories()

EXAMPLES:

sage: Coalgebras(QQ).super_categories()
[Category of vector spaces over Rational Field]

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