The class Hom is the base class used to represent sets of morphisms between objects of a given category. Hom objects are usually “weakly” cached upon creation so that they don’t have to be generated over and over but can be garbage collected together with the corresponding objects when these are are not stongly ref’ed anymore.
EXAMPLES:
In the following, the Hom object is indeed cached:
sage: K = GF(17)
sage: H = Hom(ZZ, K)
sage: H
Set of Homomorphisms from Integer Ring to Finite Field of size 17
sage: H is Hom(ZZ, K)
True
Nonetheless, garbage collection occurs when the original references are overwritten:
sage: for p in prime_range(200):
... K = GF(p)
... H = Hom(ZZ, K)
...
sage: import gc
sage: _ = gc.collect()
sage: from sage.rings.finite_rings.finite_field_prime_modn import FiniteField_prime_modn as FF
sage: L = [x for x in gc.get_objects() if isinstance(x, FF)]
sage: len(L)
2
sage: L
[Finite Field of size 2, Finite Field of size 199]
AUTHORS:
Create the set of endomorphisms of X in the category category.
INPUT:
OUTPUT:
A set of endomorphisms in category
EXAMPLES:
sage: V = VectorSpace(QQ, 3)
sage: End(V)
Set of Morphisms (Linear Transformations) from
Vector space of dimension 3 over Rational Field to
Vector space of dimension 3 over Rational Field
sage: G = AlternatingGroup(3)
sage: S = End(G); S
Set of Morphisms from Alternating group of order 3!/2 as a permutation group to Alternating group of order 3!/2 as a permutation group in Category of finite permutation groups
sage: from sage.categories.homset import is_Endset
sage: is_Endset(S)
True
sage: S.domain()
Alternating group of order 3!/2 as a permutation group
To avoid creating superfluous categories, a homset in a category Cs() is in the homset category of the lowest full super category Bs() of Cs() that implements Bs.Homsets (or the join thereof if there are several). For example, finite groups form a full subcategory of unital magmas: any unital magma morphism between two finite groups is a finite group morphism. Since finite groups currently implement nothing more than unital magmas about their homsets, we have:
sage: G = GL(3,3)
sage: G.category()
Category of finite groups
sage: H = Hom(G,G)
sage: H.homset_category()
Category of groups
sage: H.category()
Category of endsets of unital magmas
Similarly, a ring morphism just needs to preserve addition, multiplication, zero, and one. Accordingly, and since the category of rings implements nothing specific about its homsets, a ring homset is currently constructed in the category of homsets of unital magmas and unital additive magmas:
sage: H = Hom(ZZ,ZZ,Rings())
sage: H.category()
Category of endsets of unital magmas and additive unital additive magmas
Create the space of homomorphisms from X to Y in the category category.
INPUT:
OUTPUT: a homset in category
EXAMPLES:
sage: V = VectorSpace(QQ,3)
sage: Hom(V, V)
Set of Morphisms (Linear Transformations) from
Vector space of dimension 3 over Rational Field to
Vector space of dimension 3 over Rational Field
sage: G = AlternatingGroup(3)
sage: Hom(G, G)
Set of Morphisms from Alternating group of order 3!/2 as a permutation group to Alternating group of order 3!/2 as a permutation group in Category of finite permutation groups
sage: Hom(ZZ, QQ, Sets())
Set of Morphisms from Integer Ring to Rational Field in Category of sets
sage: Hom(FreeModule(ZZ,1), FreeModule(QQ,1))
Set of Morphisms from Ambient free module of rank 1 over the principal ideal domain Integer Ring to Vector space of dimension 1 over Rational Field in Category of commutative additive groups
sage: Hom(FreeModule(QQ,1), FreeModule(ZZ,1))
Set of Morphisms from Vector space of dimension 1 over Rational Field to Ambient free module of rank 1 over the principal ideal domain Integer Ring in Category of commutative additive groups
Here, we test against a memory leak that has been fixed at trac ticket #11521 by using a weak cache:
sage: for p in prime_range(10^3):
... K = GF(p)
... a = K(0)
sage: import gc
sage: gc.collect() # random
624
sage: from sage.rings.finite_rings.finite_field_prime_modn import FiniteField_prime_modn as FF
sage: L = [x for x in gc.get_objects() if isinstance(x, FF)]
sage: len(L), L[0], L[len(L)-1]
(2, Finite Field of size 2, Finite Field of size 997)
To illustrate the choice of the category, we consider the following parents as running examples:
sage: X = ZZ; X
Integer Ring
sage: Y = SymmetricGroup(3); Y
Symmetric group of order 3! as a permutation group
By default, the smallest category containing both X and Y, is used:
sage: Hom(X, Y)
Set of Morphisms from Integer Ring
to Symmetric group of order 3! as a permutation group
in Join of Category of monoids and Category of enumerated sets
Otherwise, if category is specified, then category is used, after checking that X and Y are indeed in category:
sage: Hom(X, Y, Magmas())
Set of Morphisms from Integer Ring to Symmetric group of order 3! as a permutation group in Category of magmas
sage: Hom(X, Y, Groups())
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
ValueError: Integer Ring is not in Category of groups
A parent (or a parent class of a category) may specify how to construct certain homsets by implementing a method _Hom_(self, codomain, category). This method should either construct the requested homset or raise a TypeError. This hook is currently mostly used to create homsets in some specific subclass of Homset (e.g. sage.rings.homset.RingHomset):
sage: Hom(QQ,QQ).__class__
<class 'sage.rings.homset.RingHomset_generic_with_category'>
Do not call this hook directly to create homsets, as it does not handle unique representation:
sage: Hom(QQ,QQ) == QQ._Hom_(QQ, category=QQ.category())
True
sage: Hom(QQ,QQ) is QQ._Hom_(QQ, category=QQ.category())
False
TESTS:
Homset are unique parents:
sage: k = GF(5)
sage: H1 = Hom(k,k)
sage: H2 = Hom(k,k)
sage: H1 is H2
True
Moreover, if no category is provided, then the result is identical with the result for the meet of the categories of the domain and the codomain:
sage: Hom(QQ, ZZ) is Hom(QQ,ZZ, Category.meet([QQ.category(), ZZ.category()]))
True
Some doc tests in sage.rings (need to) break the unique parent assumption. But if domain or codomain are not unique parents, then the homset will not fit. That is to say, the hom set found in the cache will have a (co)domain that is equal to, but not identical with, the given (co)domain.
By trac ticket #9138, we abandon the uniqueness of homsets, if the domain or codomain break uniqueness:
sage: from sage.rings.polynomial.multi_polynomial_ring import MPolynomialRing_polydict_domain
sage: P.<x,y,z>=MPolynomialRing_polydict_domain(QQ, 3, order='degrevlex')
sage: Q.<x,y,z>=MPolynomialRing_polydict_domain(QQ, 3, order='degrevlex')
sage: P == Q
True
sage: P is Q
False
Hence, P and Q are not unique parents. By consequence, the following homsets aren’t either:
sage: H1 = Hom(QQ,P)
sage: H2 = Hom(QQ,Q)
sage: H1 == H2
True
sage: H1 is H2
False
It is always the most recently constructed homset that remains in the cache:
sage: H2 is Hom(QQ,Q)
True
Variation on the theme:
sage: U1 = FreeModule(ZZ,2)
sage: U2 = FreeModule(ZZ,2,inner_product_matrix=matrix([[1,0],[0,-1]]))
sage: U1 == U2, U1 is U2
(True, False)
sage: V = ZZ^3
sage: H1 = Hom(U1, V); H2 = Hom(U2, V)
sage: H1 == H2, H1 is H2
(True, False)
sage: H1 = Hom(V, U1); H2 = Hom(V, U2)
sage: H1 == H2, H1 is H2
(True, False)
Since trac ticket #11900, the meet of the categories of the given arguments is used to determine the default category of the homset. This can also be a join category, as in the following example:
sage: PA = Parent(category=Algebras(QQ))
sage: PJ = Parent(category=Rings() & Modules(QQ))
sage: Hom(PA,PJ)
Set of Homomorphisms from <type 'sage.structure.parent.Parent'> to <type 'sage.structure.parent.Parent'>
sage: Hom(PA,PJ).category()
Category of homsets of unital magmas and right modules over Rational Field and left modules over Rational Field
sage: Hom(PA,PJ, Rngs())
Set of Morphisms from <type 'sage.structure.parent.Parent'> to <type 'sage.structure.parent.Parent'> in Category of rngs
Todo
TESTS:
Facade parents over plain Python types are supported:
sage: R = sage.structure.parent.Set_PythonType(int)
sage: S = sage.structure.parent.Set_PythonType(float)
sage: Hom(R, S)
Set of Morphisms from Set of Python objects of type 'int' to Set of Python objects of type 'float' in Category of sets
Checks that the domain and codomain are in the specified category. Case of a non parent:
sage: S = SimplicialComplex([[1,2], [1,4]]); S.rename("S")
sage: Hom(S, S, SimplicialComplexes())
Set of Morphisms from S to S in Category of simplicial complexes
sage: H = Hom(Set(), S, Sets())
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
ValueError: S is not in Category of sets
sage: H = Hom(S, Set(), Sets())
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
ValueError: S is not in Category of sets
sage: H = Hom(S, S, ChainComplexes(QQ))
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
ValueError: S is not in Category of chain complexes over Rational Field
Those checks are done with the natural idiom X in category, and not X.category().is_subcategory(category) as it used to be before :trac:16275:` (see trac ticket #15801 for a real use case):
sage: class PermissiveCategory(Category):
....: def super_categories(self): return [Objects()]
....: def __contains__(self, X): return True
sage: C = PermissiveCategory(); C.rename("Permissive category")
sage: S.category().is_subcategory(C)
False
sage: S in C
True
sage: Hom(S, S, C)
Set of Morphisms from S to S in Permissive category
With check=False, unitialized parents, as can appear upon unpickling, are supported. Case of a parent:
sage: cls = type(Set())
sage: S = unpickle_newobj(cls, ()) # A non parent
sage: H = Hom(S, S, SimplicialComplexes(), check=False);
sage: H = Hom(S, S, Sets(), check=False)
sage: H = Hom(S, S, ChainComplexes(QQ), check=False)
Case of a non parent:
sage: cls = type(SimplicialComplex([[1,2], [1,4]]))
sage: S = unpickle_newobj(cls, ())
sage: H = Hom(S, S, Sets(), check=False)
sage: H = Hom(S, S, Groups(), check=False)
sage: H = Hom(S, S, SimplicialComplexes(), check=False)
Typical example where unpickling involves calling Hom on an unitialized parent:
sage: P.<x,y> = QQ['x,y']
sage: Q = P.quotient([x^2-1,y^2-1])
sage: q = Q.an_element()
sage: explain_pickle(dumps(Q))
pg_...
... = pg_dynamic_class('QuotientRing_generic_with_category', (pg_QuotientRing_generic, pg_getattr(..., 'parent_class')), None, None, pg_QuotientRing_generic)
si... = unpickle_newobj(..., ())
...
si... = pg_unpickle_MPolynomialRing_libsingular(..., ('x', 'y'), ...)
si... = ... pg_Hom(si..., si..., ...) ...
sage: Q == loads(dumps(Q))
True
Bases: sage.structure.parent.Set_generic
The class for collections of morphisms in a category.
EXAMPLES:
sage: H = Hom(QQ^2, QQ^3)
sage: loads(H.dumps()) is H
True
Homsets of unique parents are unique as well:
sage: H = End(AffineSpace(2, names='x,y'))
sage: loads(dumps(AffineSpace(2, names='x,y'))) is AffineSpace(2, names='x,y')
True
sage: loads(dumps(H)) is H
True
Conversely, homsets of non-unique parents are non-unique:
sage: H = End(ProjectiveSpace(2, names=’x,y,z’)) sage: loads(dumps(ProjectiveSpace(2, names=’x,y,z’))) is ProjectiveSpace(2, names=’x,y,z’) False sage: loads(dumps(ProjectiveSpace(2, names=’x,y,z’))) == ProjectiveSpace(2, names=’x,y,z’) True sage: loads(dumps(H)) is H False sage: loads(dumps(H)) == H True
Return the codomain of this homset.
EXAMPLES:
sage: P.<t> = ZZ[]
sage: f = P.hom([1/2*t])
sage: f.parent().codomain()
Univariate Polynomial Ring in t over Rational Field
sage: f.codomain() is f.parent().codomain()
True
Warning
For compatibility with old coercion model. DO NOT USE!
TESTS:
sage: H = Hom(ZZ^2, ZZ^3)
sage: H.coerce_map_from_c(ZZ)
Return the domain of this homset.
EXAMPLES:
sage: P.<t> = ZZ[]
sage: f = P.hom([1/2*t])
sage: f.parent().domain()
Univariate Polynomial Ring in t over Integer Ring
sage: f.domain() is f.parent().domain()
True
A base class for elements of this homset which are also SetMorphism, i.e. implemented by mean of a Python function.
This is currently plain SetMorphism, without inheritance from categories.
Todo
Refactor during the upcoming homset cleanup.
EXAMPLES:
sage: H = Hom(ZZ, ZZ)
sage: H.element_class_set_morphism
<type 'sage.categories.morphism.SetMorphism'>
Warning
For compatibility with old coercion model. DO NOT USE!
TESTS:
sage: H = Hom(ZZ^2, ZZ^3)
sage: H.get_action_c(ZZ, operator.add, ZZ)
Return the category that this is a Hom in, i.e., this is typically the category of the domain or codomain object.
EXAMPLES:
sage: H = Hom(AlternatingGroup(4), AlternatingGroup(7))
sage: H.homset_category()
Category of finite permutation groups
The identity map of this homset.
Note
Of course, this only exists for sets of endomorphisms.
EXAMPLES:
sage: H = Hom(QQ,QQ)
sage: H.identity()
Identity endomorphism of Rational Field
sage: H = Hom(ZZ,QQ)
sage: H.identity()
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
TypeError: Identity map only defined for endomorphisms. Try natural_map() instead.
sage: H.natural_map()
Ring Coercion morphism:
From: Integer Ring
To: Rational Field
Return True if the domain and codomain of self are the same object.
EXAMPLES:
sage: P.<t> = ZZ[]
sage: f = P.hom([1/2*t])
sage: f.parent().is_endomorphism_set()
False
sage: g = P.hom([2*t])
sage: g.parent().is_endomorphism_set()
True
Return the “natural map” of this homset.
Note
By default, a formal coercion morphism is returned.
EXAMPLES:
sage: H = Hom(ZZ['t'],QQ['t'], CommutativeAdditiveGroups())
sage: H.natural_map()
Coercion morphism:
From: Univariate Polynomial Ring in t over Integer Ring
To: Univariate Polynomial Ring in t over Rational Field
sage: H = Hom(QQ['t'],GF(3)['t'])
sage: H.natural_map()
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
TypeError: Natural coercion morphism from Univariate Polynomial Ring in t over Rational Field to Univariate Polynomial Ring in t over Finite Field of size 3 not defined.
Return the corresponding homset, but with the domain and codomain reversed.
EXAMPLES:
sage: H = Hom(ZZ^2, ZZ^3); H
Set of Morphisms from Ambient free module of rank 2 over the principal ideal domain Integer Ring to Ambient free module of rank 3 over the principal ideal domain Integer Ring in Category of modules with basis over Integer Ring
sage: type(H)
<class 'sage.modules.free_module_homspace.FreeModuleHomspace_with_category'>
sage: H.reversed()
Set of Morphisms from Ambient free module of rank 3 over the principal ideal domain Integer Ring to Ambient free module of rank 2 over the principal ideal domain Integer Ring in Category of modules with basis over Integer Ring
sage: type(H.reversed())
<class 'sage.modules.free_module_homspace.FreeModuleHomspace_with_category'>
Bases: sage.categories.homset.Homset
TESTS:
sage: X = ZZ['x']; X.rename("X")
sage: Y = ZZ['y']; Y.rename("Y")
sage: class MyHomset(HomsetWithBase):
... def my_function(self, x):
... return Y(x[0])
... def _an_element_(self):
... return sage.categories.morphism.SetMorphism(self, self.my_function)
...
sage: import __main__; __main__.MyHomset = MyHomset # fakes MyHomset being defined in a Python module
sage: H = MyHomset(X, Y, category=Monoids())
sage: H
Set of Morphisms from X to Y in Category of monoids
sage: H.base()
Integer Ring
sage: TestSuite(H).run()
Return End(X)(f), where f is data that defines an element of End(X).
EXAMPLES:
sage: R, x = PolynomialRing(QQ,'x').objgen()
sage: phi = end(R, [x + 1])
sage: phi
Ring endomorphism of Univariate Polynomial Ring in x over Rational Field
Defn: x |--> x + 1
sage: phi(x^2 + 5)
x^2 + 2*x + 6
Return Hom(X,Y)(f), where f is data that defines an element of Hom(X,Y).
EXAMPLES:
sage: R, x = PolynomialRing(QQ,'x').objgen()
sage: phi = hom(R, QQ, [2])
sage: phi(x^2 + 3)
7
Return True if x is a set of endomorphisms in a category.
EXAMPLES:
sage: from sage.categories.homset import is_Endset
sage: P.<t> = ZZ[]
sage: f = P.hom([1/2*t])
sage: is_Endset(f.parent())
False
sage: g = P.hom([2*t])
sage: is_Endset(g.parent())
True
Return True if x is a set of homomorphisms in a category.
EXAMPLES:
sage: from sage.categories.homset import is_Homset
sage: P.<t> = ZZ[]
sage: f = P.hom([1/2*t])
sage: is_Homset(f)
False
sage: is_Homset(f.category())
False
sage: is_Homset(f.parent())
True