Solves the exact cover problem on the matrix M (treated as a dense binary matrix).
EXAMPLES: No exact covers:
sage: M = Matrix([[1,1,0],[1,0,1],[0,1,1]])
sage: print [cover for cover in AllExactCovers(M)]
[]
Two exact covers:
sage: M = Matrix([[1,1,0],[1,0,1],[0,0,1],[0,1,0]])
sage: print [cover for cover in AllExactCovers(M)]
[[(1, 1, 0), (0, 0, 1)], [(1, 0, 1), (0, 1, 0)]]
Solves the Exact Cover problem by using the Dancing Links algorithm described by Knuth.
Consider a matrix M with entries of 0 and 1, and compute a subset of the rows of this matrix which sum to the vector of all 1’s.
The dancing links algorithm works particularly well for sparse matrices, so the input is a list of lists of the form:
[
[i_11,i_12,...,i_1r]
...
[i_m1,i_m2,...,i_ms]
]
where M[j][i_jk] = 1.
The first example below corresponds to the matrix:
1110
1010
0100
0001
which is exactly covered by:
1110
0001
and
1010
0100
0001
If soln is a solution given by DLXCPP(rows) then
[ rows[soln[0]], rows[soln[1]], ... rows[soln[len(soln)-1]] ]
is an exact cover.
Solutions are given as a list
EXAMPLES:
sage: rows = [[0,1,2]]
sage: rows+= [[0,2]]
sage: rows+= [[1]]
sage: rows+= [[3]]
sage: print [ x for x in DLXCPP(rows) ]
[[3, 0], [3, 1, 2]]
Solves the exact cover problem on the matrix M (treated as a dense binary matrix).
EXAMPLES:
sage: M = Matrix([[1,1,0],[1,0,1],[0,1,1]]) #no exact covers
sage: print OneExactCover(M)
None
sage: M = Matrix([[1,1,0],[1,0,1],[0,0,1],[0,1,0]]) #two exact covers
sage: print OneExactCover(M)
[(1, 1, 0), (0, 0, 1)]