This file contains the definition of the classes Graphics and GraphicsArray. Usually, you don’t create these classes directly (although you can do it), you would use plot() or graphics_array() instead.
AUTHORS:
Bases: sage.structure.sage_object.SageObject
The Graphics object is an empty list of graphics objects. It is useful to use this object when initializing a for loop where different graphics object will be added to the empty object.
EXAMPLES:
sage: G = Graphics(); print G
Graphics object consisting of 0 graphics primitives
sage: c = circle((1,1), 1)
sage: G+=c; print G
Graphics object consisting of 1 graphics primitive
Here we make a graphic of embedded isosceles triangles, coloring each one with a different color as we go:
sage: h=10; c=0.4; p=0.5;
sage: G = Graphics()
sage: for x in srange(1,h+1):
....: l = [[0,x*sqrt(3)],[-x/2,-x*sqrt(3)/2],[x/2,-x*sqrt(3)/2],[0,x*sqrt(3)]]
....: G+=line(l,color=hue(c + p*(x/h)))
sage: G.show(figsize=[5,5])
We can change the scale of the axes in the graphics before displaying.:
sage: G = plot(exp, 1, 10) # long time
sage: G.show(scale='semilogy') # long time
TESTS:
From trac ticket #4604, ensure Graphics can handle 3d objects:
sage: g = Graphics()
sage: g += sphere((1, 1, 1), 2)
sage: g.show()
We check that graphics can be pickled (we can’t use equality on graphics so we just check that the load/dump cycle gives a Graphics instance):
sage: g = Graphics()
sage: g2 = loads(dumps(g))
sage: g2.show()
sage: isinstance(g2, Graphics)
True
Magic graphics method.
The presence of this method is used by the displayhook to decide that we want to see a graphical output by default.
INPUT:
OUTPUT:
Return an instance of sage.structure.graphics_file.GraphicsFile encapsulating a suitable image file. If mime_types is specified, the resulting file format must match one of these.
Alternatively, this method can return None to indicate that textual representation is preferable and/or no graphics with the desired mime type can be generated.
EXAMPLES:
sage: g = Graphics()
sage: g._graphics_()
Graphics file image/png
sage: [g, g]
[Graphics object consisting of 0 graphics primitives,
Graphics object consisting of 0 graphics primitives]
sage: g._graphics_(mime_types={'foo/bar'}) is None
True
Adds a primitive to this graphics object.
EXAMPLES:
We give a very explicit example:
sage: G = Graphics()
sage: from sage.plot.line import Line
sage: from sage.plot.arrow import Arrow
sage: L = Line([3,4,2,7,-2],[1,2,e,4,5.],{'alpha':1,'thickness':2,'rgbcolor':(0,1,1),'legend_label':''})
sage: A = Arrow(2,-5,.1,.2,{'width':3,'head':0,'rgbcolor':(1,0,0),'linestyle':'dashed','zorder':8,'legend_label':''})
sage: G.add_primitive(L)
sage: G.add_primitive(A)
sage: G
Graphics object consisting of 2 graphics primitives
Get the current aspect ratio, which is the ratio of height to width of a unit square, or ‘automatic’.
OUTPUT: a positive float (height/width of a unit square), or ‘automatic’ (expand to fill the figure).
EXAMPLES:
The default aspect ratio for a new blank Graphics object is ‘automatic’:
sage: P = Graphics()
sage: P.aspect_ratio()
'automatic'
The aspect ratio can be explicitly set different than the object’s default:
sage: P = circle((1,1), 1)
sage: P.aspect_ratio()
1.0
sage: P.set_aspect_ratio(2)
sage: P.aspect_ratio()
2.0
sage: P.set_aspect_ratio('automatic')
sage: P.aspect_ratio()
'automatic'
Set whether or not the \(x\) and \(y\) axes are shown by default.
INPUT:
If called with no input, return the current axes setting.
EXAMPLES:
sage: L = line([(1,2), (3,-4), (2, 5), (1,2)])
By default the axes are displayed.
sage: L.axes()
True
But we turn them off, and verify that they are off
sage: L.axes(False)
sage: L.axes()
False
Displaying L now shows a triangle but no axes.
sage: L
Graphics object consisting of 1 graphics primitive
Set the axes color.
If called with no input, return the current axes_color setting.
INPUT:
EXAMPLES: We create a line, which has like everything a default axes color of black.
sage: L = line([(1,2), (3,-4), (2, 5), (1,2)])
sage: L.axes_color()
(0, 0, 0)
We change the axes color to red and verify the change.
sage: L.axes_color((1,0,0))
sage: L.axes_color()
(1.0, 0.0, 0.0)
When we display the plot, we’ll see a blue triangle and bright red axes.
sage: L
Graphics object consisting of 1 graphics primitive
Set the color of the axes labels.
The axes labels are placed at the edge of the x and y axes, and are not on by default (use the axes_labels command to set them; see the example below). This function just changes their color.
INPUT:
If called with no input, return the current axes_label_color setting.
EXAMPLES: We create a plot, which by default has axes label color black.
sage: p = plot(sin, (-1,1))
sage: p.axes_label_color()
(0, 0, 0)
We change the labels to be red, and confirm this:
sage: p.axes_label_color((1,0,0))
sage: p.axes_label_color()
(1.0, 0.0, 0.0)
We set labels, since otherwise we won’t see anything.
sage: p.axes_labels(['$x$ axis', '$y$ axis'])
In the plot below, notice that the labels are red:
sage: p
Graphics object consisting of 1 graphics primitive
Set the axes labels.
INPUT:
OUTPUT: a 2-tuple of strings
If l is None, returns the current axes_labels, which is itself by default None. The default labels are both empty.
EXAMPLES: We create a plot and put x and y axes labels on it.
sage: p = plot(sin(x), (x, 0, 10))
sage: p.axes_labels(['$x$','$y$'])
sage: p.axes_labels()
('$x$', '$y$')
Now when you plot p, you see x and y axes labels:
sage: p
Graphics object consisting of 1 graphics primitive
Notice that some may prefer axes labels which are not typeset:
sage: plot(sin(x), (x, 0, 10), axes_labels=['x','y'])
Graphics object consisting of 1 graphics primitive
TESTS:
Unicode strings are acceptable; see trac ticket #13161. Note that this does not guarantee that matplotlib will handle the strings properly, although it should.
sage: c = circle((0,0), 1)
sage: c.axes_labels(['axe des abscisses', u'axe des ordonnées'])
sage: c._axes_labels
('axe des abscisses', u'axe des ordonnées')
Set the ranges of the \(x\) and \(y\) axes.
INPUT:
EXAMPLES:
sage: L = line([(1,2), (3,-4), (2, 5), (1,2)])
sage: L.set_axes_range(-1, 20, 0, 2)
sage: d = L.get_axes_range()
sage: d['xmin'], d['xmax'], d['ymin'], d['ymax']
(-1.0, 20.0, 0.0, 2.0)
Set the axes width. Use this to draw a plot with really fat or really thin axes.
INPUT:
If called with no input, return the current axes_width setting.
EXAMPLE: We create a plot, see the default axes width (with funny Python float rounding), then reset the width to 10 (very fat).
sage: p = plot(cos, (-3,3))
sage: p.axes_width()
0.8
sage: p.axes_width(10)
sage: p.axes_width()
10.0
Finally we plot the result, which is a graph with very fat axes.
sage: p
Graphics object consisting of 1 graphics primitive
Print a textual description to stdout.
This method is mostly used for doctests.
EXAMPLES:
sage: print polytopes.n_cube(2).plot().description()
Polygon defined by 4 points: [(1.0, 1.0), (-1.0, 1.0), (-1.0, -1.0), (1.0, -1.0)]
Line defined by 2 points: [(-1.0, -1.0), (-1.0, 1.0)]
Line defined by 2 points: [(-1.0, -1.0), (1.0, -1.0)]
Line defined by 2 points: [(-1.0, 1.0), (1.0, 1.0)]
Line defined by 2 points: [(1.0, -1.0), (1.0, 1.0)]
Point set defined by 4 point(s): [(-1.0, -1.0), (-1.0, 1.0), (1.0, -1.0), (1.0, 1.0)]
Set the font size of axes labels and tick marks.
INPUT:
If called with no input, return the current fontsize.
EXAMPLES:
sage: L = line([(1,2), (3,-4), (2, 5), (1,2)])
sage: L.fontsize()
10
sage: L.fontsize(20)
sage: L.fontsize()
20
All the numbers on the axes will be very large in this plot:
sage: L
Graphics object consisting of 1 graphics primitive
Returns a dictionary of the range of the axes for this graphics object. This is fall back to the ranges in get_minmax_data() for any value which the user has not explicitly set.
Warning
Changing the dictionary returned by this function does not change the axes range for this object. To do that, use the set_axes_range() method.
EXAMPLES:
sage: L = line([(1,2), (3,-4), (2, 5), (1,2)])
sage: list(sorted(L.get_axes_range().items()))
[('xmax', 3.0), ('xmin', 1.0), ('ymax', 5.0), ('ymin', -4.0)]
sage: L.set_axes_range(xmin=-1)
sage: list(sorted(L.get_axes_range().items()))
[('xmax', 3.0), ('xmin', -1.0), ('ymax', 5.0), ('ymin', -4.0)]
Return a dictionary whose keys give the xmin, xmax, ymin, and ymax data for this graphic.
Warning
The returned dictionary is mutable, but changing it does not change the xmin/xmax/ymin/ymax data. The minmax data is a function of the primitives which make up this Graphics object. To change the range of the axes, call methods xmin(), xmax(), ymin(), ymax(), or set_axes_range().
EXAMPLES:
sage: g = line([(-1,1), (3,2)])
sage: list(sorted(g.get_minmax_data().items()))
[('xmax', 3.0), ('xmin', -1.0), ('ymax', 2.0), ('ymin', 1.0)]
Note that changing ymax doesn’t change the output of get_minmax_data:
sage: g.ymax(10)
sage: list(sorted(g.get_minmax_data().items()))
[('xmax', 3.0), ('xmin', -1.0), ('ymax', 2.0), ('ymin', 1.0)]
Set whether or not the legend is shown by default.
INPUT:
If called with no input, return the current legend setting.
EXAMPLES:
By default no legend is displayed:
sage: P = plot(sin)
sage: P.legend()
False
But if we put a label then the legend is shown:
sage: P = plot(sin, legend_label='sin')
sage: P.legend()
True
We can turn it on or off:
sage: P.legend(False)
sage: P.legend()
False
sage: P.legend(True)
sage: P # show with the legend
Graphics object consisting of 1 graphics primitive
Return a matplotlib figure object representing the graphic
EXAMPLES:
sage: c = circle((1,1),1)
sage: print c.matplotlib()
Figure(640x480)
To obtain the first matplotlib axes object inside of the figure, you can do something like the following.
sage: p=plot(sin(x), (x, -2*pi, 2*pi))
sage: figure=p.matplotlib()
sage: axes=figure.axes[0]
For input parameters, see the documentation for the show() method (this function accepts all except the transparent argument).
TESTS:
We verify that trac ticket #10291 is fixed:
sage: p = plot(sin(x), (x, -2*pi, 2*pi))
sage: figure = p.matplotlib()
sage: axes_range = p.get_axes_range()
sage: figure = p.matplotlib()
sage: axes_range2 = p.get_axes_range()
sage: axes_range == axes_range2
True
We verify that legend options are properly handled (trac ticket #12960). First, we test with no options, and next with an incomplete set of options.:
sage: p = plot(x, legend_label='aha')
sage: p.legend(True)
sage: pm = p.matplotlib()
sage: pm = p.matplotlib(legend_options={'font_size':'small'})
The title should not overlap with the axes labels nor the frame in the following plot (see trac ticket #10512):
sage: plot(sin(x^2), (x, -3, 3), title='Plot of sin(x^2)', axes_labels=['x','y'],frame=True)
Graphics object consisting of 1 graphics primitive
typeset must not be set to an arbitrary string:
sage: plot(x, typeset='garbage')
doctest:...: FormatterWarning: Exception in text/plain formatter:
typeset must be set to one of 'default', 'latex', or 'type1'; got 'garbage'.
None
We verify that numerical options are changed to float before saving (trac ticket #14741). By default, Sage 5.10 changes float objects to the \(RealLiteral\) type. The patch changes them to float before creating \(matplotlib\) objects.:
sage: f = lambda x, y : (abs(cos((x + I * y) ** 4)) - 1) # long time
sage: g = implicit_plot(f,(-4, 4),(-3, 3),linewidth=0.6) # long time
sage: gm = g.matplotlib() # long time # without the patch, this goes BOOM -- er, TypeError
Draw a 2D plot of this graphics object, which just returns this object since this is already a 2D graphics object.
EXAMPLES:
sage: S = circle((0,0), 2)
sage: S.plot() is S
True
Returns an embedding of this 2D plot into the xy-plane of 3D space, as a 3D plot object. An optional parameter z can be given to specify the z-coordinate.
EXAMPLES:
sage: sum([plot(z*sin(x), 0, 10).plot3d(z) for z in range(6)]) # long time
Graphics3d Object
Save the graphics to an image file.
INPUT:
filename – a string (default: autogenerated), the filename and the image format given by the extension, which can be one of the following:
- .eps,
- .pdf,
- .png,
- .ps,
- .sobj (for a Sage object you can load later),
- .svg,
- empty extension will be treated as .sobj.
All other keyword arguments will be passed to the plotter.
OUTPUT:
EXAMPLES:
sage: c = circle((1,1), 1, color='red')
sage: filename = os.path.join(SAGE_TMP, 'test.png')
sage: c.save(filename, xmin=-1, xmax=3, ymin=-1, ymax=3)
To make a figure bigger or smaller, use figsize:
sage: c.save(filename, figsize=5, xmin=-1, xmax=3, ymin=-1, ymax=3)
By default, the figure grows to include all of the graphics and text, so the final image may not be exactly the figure size you specified. If you want a figure to be exactly a certain size, specify the keyword fig_tight=False:
sage: c.save(filename, figsize=[8,4], fig_tight=False,
....: xmin=-1, xmax=3, ymin=-1, ymax=3)
You can also pass extra options to the plot command instead of this method, e.g.
sage: plot(x^2 - 5, (x, 0, 5), ymin=0).save(tmp_filename(ext='.png'))
will save the same plot as the one shown by this command:
sage: plot(x^2 - 5, (x, 0, 5), ymin=0)
Graphics object consisting of 1 graphics primitive
(This test verifies that trac ticket #8632 is fixed.)
TESTS:
Legend labels should save correctly:
sage: P = plot(x,(x,0,1),legend_label='$xyz$')
sage: P.set_legend_options(back_color=(1,0,0))
sage: P.set_legend_options(loc=7)
sage: filename=os.path.join(SAGE_TMP, 'test.png')
sage: P.save(filename)
This plot should save with the frame shown, showing trac ticket #7524 is fixed (same issue as trac ticket #7981 and trac ticket #8632):
sage: var('x,y')
(x, y)
sage: a = plot_vector_field((x,-y),(x,-1,1),(y,-1,1))
sage: filename=os.path.join(SAGE_TMP, 'test2.png')
sage: a.save(filename)
The following plot should show the axes; fixes trac ticket #14782
sage: plot(x^2, (x, 1, 2), ticks=[[], []])
Graphics object consisting of 1 graphics primitive
Save an image representation of self. The image type is determined by the extension of the filename. For example, this could be .png, .jpg, .gif, .pdf, .svg. Currently this is implemented by calling the save() method of self, passing along all arguments and keywords.
Note
Not all image types are necessarily implemented for all graphics types. See save() for more details.
EXAMPLES:
sage: c = circle((1,1), 1, color='red')
sage: filename = os.path.join(SAGE_TMP, 'test.png')
sage: c.save_image(filename, xmin=-1, xmax=3, ymin=-1, ymax=3)
Set the aspect ratio, which is the ratio of height and width of a unit square (i.e., height/width of a unit square), or ‘automatic’ (expand to fill the figure).
INPUT:
EXAMPLES: We create a plot of the upper half of a circle, but it doesn’t look round because the aspect ratio is off:
sage: P = plot(sqrt(1-x^2),(x,-1,1)); P
Graphics object consisting of 1 graphics primitive
So we set the aspect ratio and now it is round:
sage: P.set_aspect_ratio(1)
sage: P.aspect_ratio()
1.0
sage: P
Graphics object consisting of 1 graphics primitive
Note that the aspect ratio is inherited upon addition (which takes the max of aspect ratios of objects whose aspect ratio has been set):
sage: P + plot(sqrt(4-x^2),(x,-2,2))
Graphics object consisting of 2 graphics primitives
In the following example, both plots produce a circle that looks twice as tall as wide:
sage: Q = circle((0,0), 0.5); Q.set_aspect_ratio(2)
sage: (P + Q).aspect_ratio(); P+Q
2.0
Graphics object consisting of 2 graphics primitives
sage: (Q + P).aspect_ratio(); Q+P
2.0
Graphics object consisting of 2 graphics primitives
Set the ranges of the \(x\) and \(y\) axes.
INPUT:
EXAMPLES:
sage: L = line([(1,2), (3,-4), (2, 5), (1,2)])
sage: L.set_axes_range(-1, 20, 0, 2)
sage: d = L.get_axes_range()
sage: d['xmin'], d['xmax'], d['ymin'], d['ymax']
(-1.0, 20.0, 0.0, 2.0)
Set various legend options.
INPUT:
title - (default: None) string, the legend title
ncol - (default: 1) positive integer, the number of columns
columnspacing - (default: None) the spacing between columns
borderaxespad - (default: None) float, length between the axes and the legend
back_color - (default: (0.9, 0.9, 0.9)) This parameter can be a string denoting a color or an RGB tuple. The string can be a color name as in (‘red’, ‘green’, ‘yellow’, ...) or a floating point number like ‘0.8’ which gets expanded to (0.8, 0.8, 0.8). The tuple form is just a floating point RGB tuple with all values ranging from 0 to 1.
handlelength - (default: 0.05) float, the length of the legend handles
handletextpad - (default: 0.5) float, the pad between the legend handle and text
labelspacing - (default: 0.02) float, vertical space between legend entries
integer inputs must be one of the following:
markerscale - (default: 0.6) float, how much to scale the markers in the legend.
numpoints - (default: 2) integer, the number of points in the legend for line
borderpad - (default: 0.6) float, the fractional whitespace inside the legend border (between 0 and 1)
font_family - (default: ‘sans-serif’) string, one of ‘serif’, ‘sans-serif’, ‘cursive’, ‘fantasy’, ‘monospace’
font_style - (default: ‘normal’) string, one of ‘normal’, ‘italic’, ‘oblique’
font_variant - (default: ‘normal’) string, one of ‘normal’, ‘small-caps’
font_weight - (default: ‘medium’) string, one of ‘black’, ‘extra bold’, ‘bold’, ‘semibold’, ‘medium’, ‘normal’, ‘light’
font_size - (default: ‘medium’) string, one of ‘xx-small’, ‘x-small’, ‘small’, ‘medium’, ‘large’, ‘x-large’, ‘xx-large’ or an absolute font size (e.g. 12)
shadow - (default: False) boolean - draw a shadow behind the legend
fancybox - (default: False) a boolean. If True, draws a frame with a round fancybox.
These are all keyword arguments.
OUTPUT: a dictionary of all current legend options
EXAMPLES:
By default, no options are set:
sage: p = plot(tan, legend_label='tan')
sage: p.set_legend_options()
{}
We build a legend with a shadow:
sage: p.set_legend_options(shadow=True)
sage: p.set_legend_options()['shadow']
True
To set the legend position to the center of the plot, all these methods are roughly equivalent:
sage: p.set_legend_options(loc='center'); p
Graphics object consisting of 1 graphics primitive
sage: p.set_legend_options(loc=10); p
Graphics object consisting of 1 graphics primitive
sage: p.set_legend_options(loc=(0.5,0.5)); p # aligns the bottom of the box to the center
Graphics object consisting of 1 graphics primitive
Show this graphics image with the default image viewer.
OPTIONAL INPUT:
filename - (default: None) string
dpi - (default: 100) dots per inch
figsize - (default: [8.0,6.0]) [width, height] inches. The maximum value of each of the width and the height can be 327 inches, at the default dpi of 100 dpi, which is just shy of the maximum allowed value of 32768 dots (pixels).
fig_tight - (default: True) whether to clip the drawing tightly around drawn objects. If True, then the resulting image will usually not have dimensions corresponding to figsize. If False, the resulting image will have dimensions corresponding to figsize.
aspect_ratio - the perceived height divided by the perceived width. For example, if the aspect ratio is set to 1, circles will look round and a unit square will appear to have sides of equal length, and if the aspect ratio is set 2, vertical units will be twice as long as horizontal units, so a unit square will be twice as high as it is wide. If set to 'automatic', the aspect ratio is determined by figsize and the picture fills the figure.
axes - (default: True)
axes_labels - (default: None) list (or tuple) of two strings; the first is used as the label for the horizontal axis, and the second for the vertical axis.
fontsize - (default: current setting – 10) positive integer; used for axes labels; if you make this very large, you may have to increase figsize to see all labels.
frame - (default: False) draw a frame around the image
gridlines - (default: None) can be any of the following:
gridlinesstyle, hgridlinesstyle, vgridlinesstyle - (default: None) a dictionary of MATPLOTLIB options for the rendering of the grid lines, the horizontal grid lines or the vertical grid lines, respectively.
to the produced file is returned.
transparent - (default: False) If True, make the background transparent.
axes_pad - (default: 0.02 on "linear" scale, 1 on "log" scale).
ticks_integer - (default: False) guarantee that the ticks are integers (the ticks option, if specified, will override this)
ticks - A matplotlib locator for the major ticks, or a number. There are several options. For more information about locators, type from matplotlib import ticker and then ticker?.
tick_formatter - A matplotlib formatter for the major ticks. There are several options. For more information about formatters, type from matplotlib import ticker and then ticker?.
If the value of this keyword is a single item, then this will give the formatting for the horizontal axis only (except for the "latex" option). If it is a list or tuple, the first is for the horizontal axis, the second for the vertical axis. The options are below:
Warning
This should only be used with the ticks option using nice rational multiples of that constant!
title - (default: None) The title for the plot
plot. It must be a tuple or a list of two real numbers (x_pos, y_pos) which indicate the relative position of the title within the plot. The plot itself can be considered to occupy, in relative terms, the region within a unit square \([0,1]\\times[0,1]\). The title text is centered around the horizontal factor x_pos of the plot. The baseline of the title text is present at the vertical factor y_pos of the plot. Hence, title_pos=(0.5, 0.5) will center the title in the plot, whereas title_pos=(0.5, 1.1) will center the title along the horizontal direction, but will place the title a fraction \(0.1\) times above the plot.
show_legend - (default: None) If True, show the legend
prefixed with legend_
base - (default: 10) the base of the logarithm if a logarithmic scale is set. This must be greater than 1. The base can be also given as a list or tuple (basex, basey). basex sets the base of the logarithm along the horizontal axis and basey sets the base along the vertical axis.
scale – (default: "linear") string. The scale of the axes. Possible values are
The scale can be also be given as single argument that is a list or tuple (scale, base) or (scale, basex, basey).
Note
xmin – starting x value in the rendered figure.
xmax – ending x value in the rendered figure.
ymin – starting y value in the rendered figure.
ymax – ending y value in the rendered figure.
typeset – (default: "default") string. The type of font rendering that should be used for the text. The possible values are
EXAMPLES:
sage: c = circle((1,1), 1, color='red')
sage: c.show(xmin=-1, xmax=3, ymin=-1, ymax=3)
You can make the picture larger by changing figsize with width, height each having a maximum value of 327 inches at default dpi:
sage: p = ellipse((0,0),4,1)
sage: p.show(figsize=[327,10],dpi=100)
sage: p.show(figsize=[328,10],dpi=80)
You can turn off the drawing of the axes:
sage: show(plot(sin,-4,4), axes=False)
You can also label the axes. Putting something in dollar signs formats it as a mathematical expression:
sage: show(plot(sin,-4,4), axes_labels=('$x$','$y$'))
You can add a title to a plot:
sage: show(plot(sin,-4,4), title='A plot of $\sin(x)$')
You can also provide the position for the title to the plot. In the plot below the title is placed on the bottom left of the figure.:
sage: plot(sin, -4, 4, title='Plot sin(x)', title_pos=(0.05,-0.05))
Graphics object consisting of 1 graphics primitive
If you want all the text to be rendered by using an external LaTeX installation then set the typeset to "latex". This requires that LaTeX, dvipng and Ghostscript be installed:
sage: plot(x, typeset='latex') # optional - latex
If you want all the text in your plot to use Type 1 fonts, then set the typeset option to "type1". This requires that LaTeX, dvipng and Ghostscript be installed:
sage: plot(x, typeset='type1') # optional - latex
You can turn on the drawing of a frame around the plots:
sage: show(plot(sin,-4,4), frame=True)
You can make the background transparent:
sage: plot(sin(x), (x, -4, 4), transparent=True)
Graphics object consisting of 1 graphics primitive
We can change the scale of the axes in the graphics before displaying:
sage: G = plot(exp, 1, 10)
sage: G.show(scale='semilogy')
We can change the base of the logarithm too. The following changes the vertical axis to be on log scale, and with base 2. Note that the base argument will ignore any changes to the axis which is in linear scale.:
sage: G.show(scale='semilogy', base=2) # long time # y axis as powers of 2
sage: G.show(scale='semilogy', base=(3,2)) # base ignored for x-axis
The scale can be also given as a 2-tuple or a 3-tuple.:
sage: G.show(scale=('loglog', 2.1)) # long time # both x and y axes in base 2.1
sage: G.show(scale=('loglog', 2, 3)) # long time # x in base 2, y in base 3
The base need not be an integer, though it does have to be made a float.:
sage: G.show(scale='semilogx', base=float(e)) # base is e
Logarithmic scale can be used for various kinds of plots. Here are some examples.:
sage: G = list_plot(map(lambda i: 10**i, range(10))) # long time
sage: G.show(scale='semilogy') # long time
sage: G = parametric_plot((x, x**2), (x, 1, 10))
sage: G.show(scale='loglog')
sage: disk((5,5), 4, (0, 3*pi/2)).show(scale='loglog',base=2)
sage: x, y = var('x, y')
sage: G = plot_vector_field((2^x,y^2),(x,1,10),(y,1,100))
sage: G.show(scale='semilogx',base=2)
Add grid lines at the major ticks of the axes.
sage: c = circle((0,0), 1)
sage: c.show(gridlines=True)
sage: c.show(gridlines="automatic")
sage: c.show(gridlines="major")
Add grid lines at the major and minor ticks of the axes.
sage: u,v = var('u v')
sage: f = exp(-(u^2+v^2))
sage: p = plot_vector_field(f.gradient(), (u,-2,2), (v,-2,2))
sage: p.show(gridlines="minor")
Add only horizontal or vertical grid lines.
sage: p = plot(sin,-10,20)
sage: p.show(gridlines=[None, "automatic"])
sage: p.show(gridlines=["minor", False])
Add grid lines at specific positions (using lists/tuples).
sage: x, y = var('x, y')
sage: p = implicit_plot((y^2-x^2)*(x-1)*(2*x-3)-4*(x^2+y^2-2*x)^2, \
....: (x,-2,2), (y,-2,2), plot_points=1000)
sage: p.show(gridlines=[[1,0],[-1,0,1]])
Add grid lines at specific positions (using iterators).
sage: def maple_leaf(t):
....: return (100/(100+(t-pi/2)^8))*(2-sin(7*t)-cos(30*t)/2)
sage: p = polar_plot(maple_leaf, -pi/4, 3*pi/2, color="red",plot_points=1000) # long time
sage: p.show(gridlines=( [-3,-2.75,..,3], xrange(-1,5,2) )) # long time
Add grid lines at specific positions (using functions).
sage: y = x^5 + 4*x^4 - 10*x^3 - 40*x^2 + 9*x + 36
sage: p = plot(y, -4.1, 1.1)
sage: xlines = lambda a,b: [z for z,m in y.roots()]
sage: p.show(gridlines=[xlines, [0]], frame=True, axes=False)
Change the style of all the grid lines.
sage: b = bar_chart([-3,5,-6,11], color='red')
sage: b.show(gridlines=([-1,-0.5,..,4],True),
....: gridlinesstyle=dict(color="blue", linestyle=":"))
Change the style of the horizontal or vertical grid lines separately.
sage: p = polar_plot(2 + 2*cos(x), 0, 2*pi, color=hue(0.3))
sage: p.show(gridlines=True,
....: hgridlinesstyle=dict(color="orange", linewidth=1.0),
....: vgridlinesstyle=dict(color="blue", linestyle=":"))
Change the style of each grid line individually.
sage: x, y = var('x, y')
sage: p = implicit_plot((y^2-x^2)*(x-1)*(2*x-3)-4*(x^2+y^2-2*x)^2,
....: (x,-2,2), (y,-2,2), plot_points=1000)
sage: p.show(gridlines=(
....: [
....: (1,{"color":"red","linestyle":":"}),
....: (0,{"color":"blue","linestyle":"--"})
....: ],
....: [
....: (-1,{"color":"red","linestyle":":"}),
....: (0,{"color":"blue","linestyle":"--"}),
....: (1,{"color":"red","linestyle":":"}),
....: ]
....: ),
....: gridlinesstyle=dict(marker='x',color="black"))
Grid lines can be added to contour plots.
sage: f = sin(x^2 + y^2)*cos(x)*sin(y)
sage: c = contour_plot(f, (x, -4, 4), (y, -4, 4), plot_points=100)
sage: c.show(gridlines=True, gridlinesstyle={'linestyle':':','linewidth':1, 'color':'red'})
Grid lines can be added to matrix plots.
sage: M = MatrixSpace(QQ,10).random_element()
sage: matrix_plot(M).show(gridlines=True)
By default, Sage increases the horizontal and vertical axes limits by a certain percentage in all directions. This is controlled by the axes_pad parameter. Increasing the range of the axes helps avoid problems with lines and dots being clipped because the linewidth extends beyond the axes. To get axes limits that are exactly what is specified, set axes_pad to zero. Compare the following two examples
sage: plot(sin(x), (x, -pi, pi),thickness=2)+point((pi, -1), pointsize=15)
Graphics object consisting of 2 graphics primitives
sage: plot(sin(x), (x, -pi, pi),thickness=2,axes_pad=0)+point((pi, -1), pointsize=15)
Graphics object consisting of 2 graphics primitives
The behavior of the axes_pad parameter is different if the axis is in the "log" scale. If \(b\) is the base of the axis, the minimum value of the axis, is decreased by the factor \(1/b^{\mathrm{axes\_pad}}\) of the minimum and the maximum value of the axis is increased by the same factor of the maximum value. Compare the axes in the following two plots to see the difference.
sage: plot_loglog(x, (1.1*10**-2, 9990))
Graphics object consisting of 1 graphics primitive
sage: plot_loglog(x, (1.1*10**-2, 9990), axes_pad=0)
Graphics object consisting of 1 graphics primitive
Via matplotlib, Sage allows setting of custom ticks. See above for more details.
Here the labels are not so useful:
sage: plot(sin(pi*x), (x, -8, 8))
Graphics object consisting of 1 graphics primitive
Now put ticks at multiples of 2:
sage: plot(sin(pi*x), (x, -8, 8), ticks=2)
Graphics object consisting of 1 graphics primitive
Or just choose where you want the ticks:
sage: plot(sin(pi*x), (x, -8, 8), ticks=[[-7,-3,0,3,7],[-1/2,0,1/2]])
Graphics object consisting of 1 graphics primitive
Or no ticks at all:
sage: plot(sin(pi*x), (x, -8, 8), ticks=[[],[]])
Graphics object consisting of 1 graphics primitive
This can be very helpful in showing certain features of plots.
sage: plot(1.5/(1+e^(-x)), (x, -10, 10)) # doesn't quite show value of inflection point
Graphics object consisting of 1 graphics primitive
sage: plot(1.5/(1+e^(-x)), (x, -10, 10), ticks=[None, 1.5/4]) # It's right at f(x)=0.75!
Graphics object consisting of 1 graphics primitive
But be careful to leave enough room for at least two major ticks, so that the user can tell what the scale is:
sage: plot(x^2,(x,1,8),ticks=6).show()
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
ValueError: Expand the range of the independent variable to
allow two multiples of your tick locator (option `ticks`).
We can also do custom formatting if you need it. See above for full details:
sage: plot(2*x+1,(x,0,5),ticks=[[0,1,e,pi,sqrt(20)],2],tick_formatter="latex")
Graphics object consisting of 1 graphics primitive
This is particularly useful when setting custom ticks in multiples of \(\pi\).
sage: plot(sin(x),(x,0,2*pi),ticks=pi/3,tick_formatter=pi)
Graphics object consisting of 1 graphics primitive
But keep in mind that you will get exactly the formatting you asked for if you specify both formatters. The first syntax is recommended for best style in that case.
sage: plot(arcsin(x),(x,-1,1),ticks=[None,pi/6],tick_formatter=["latex",pi]) # Nice-looking!
Graphics object consisting of 1 graphics primitive
sage: plot(arcsin(x),(x,-1,1),ticks=[None,pi/6],tick_formatter=[None,pi]) # Not so nice-looking
Graphics object consisting of 1 graphics primitive
Custom tick labels can be provided by providing the keyword tick_formatter with the list of labels, and simultaneously providing the keyword ticks with the positions of the labels.
sage: plot(x, (x,0,3), ticks=[[1,2.5],[0.5,1,2]], tick_formatter=[["$x_1$","$x_2$"],["$y_1$","$y_2$","$y_3$"]])
Graphics object consisting of 1 graphics primitive
The following sets the custom tick labels only along the horizontal axis.
sage: plot(x**2, (x,0,2), ticks=[[1,2], None], tick_formatter=[["$x_1$","$x_2$"], None])
Graphics object consisting of 1 graphics primitive
If the number of tick labels do not match the number of positions of tick labels, then it results in an error.:
sage: plot(x**2, (x,0,2), ticks=[[2], None], tick_formatter=[["$x_1$","$x_2$"], None]).show()
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
ValueError: If the first component of the list `tick_formatter` is a list then the first component of `ticks` must also be a list of equal length.
When using logarithmic scale along the axis, make sure to have enough room for two ticks so that the user can tell what the scale is. This can be effected by increasing the range of the independent variable, or by changing the base, or by providing enough tick locations by using the ticks parameter.
By default, Sage will expand the variable range so that at least two ticks are included along the logarithmic axis. However, if you specify ticks manually, this safety measure can be defeated:
sage: list_plot_loglog([(1,2),(2,3)], plotjoined=True, ticks=[[1],[1]])
doctest:...: UserWarning: The x-axis contains fewer than 2 ticks;
the logarithmic scale of the plot may not be apparent to the reader.
doctest:...: UserWarning: The y-axis contains fewer than 2 ticks;
the logarithmic scale of the plot may not be apparent to the reader.
Graphics object consisting of 1 graphics primitive
This one works, since the horizontal axis is automatically expanded to contain two ticks and the vertical axis is provided with two ticks:
sage: list_plot_loglog([(1,2),(2,3)], plotjoined=True, ticks=[None,[1,10]])
Graphics object consisting of 1 graphics primitive
Another example in the log scale where both the axes are automatically expanded to show two major ticks:
sage: list_plot_loglog([(2,0.5), (3, 4)], plotjoined=True)
Graphics object consisting of 1 graphics primitive
When using title_pos, it must be ensured that a list or a tuple of length two is used. Otherwise, an error is raised.:
sage; plot(x, -4, 4, title='Plot x', title_pos=0.05)
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
ValueError: 'title_pos' must be a list or tuple of two real numbers.
TESTS:
The figsize width and height parameters (at default dpi) must be less than 328 inches each, corresponding to the maximum allowed pixels in each direction of 32768. See trac ticket #5956 for more about the next several tests:
sage: p = ellipse((0,0),4,1)
sage: p.show(figsize=[328,10],dpi=100)
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
ValueError: width and height must each be below 32768
The following tests result in a segmentation fault and should not be run or doctested:
sage: p = ellipse((0,0),4,1)
sage: #p.show(figsize=[232,232],dpi=100) # not tested
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Unhandled SIGSEGV: A segmentation fault occurred in Sage.
This probably occurred because a *compiled* component of Sage has a bug
in it and is not properly wrapped with sig_on(), sig_off().
Sage will now terminate.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
sage: #p.show(figsize=[327,181],dpi=100) # not tested
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Unhandled SIGSEGV: A segmentation fault occurred in Sage.
This probably occurred because a *compiled* component of Sage has a bug
in it and is not properly wrapped with sig_on(), sig_off().
Sage will now terminate.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
The following tests ensure we give a good error message for negative figsizes:
sage: P = plot(x^2,(x,0,1))
sage: P.show(figsize=[-1,1])
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
ValueError: figsize should be positive numbers, not -1.0 and 1.0
sage: P.show(figsize=-1)
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
ValueError: figsize should be positive, not -1.0
sage: P.show(figsize=x^2)
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
TypeError: figsize should be a positive number, not x^2
sage: P.show(figsize=[2,3,4])
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
ValueError: figsize should be a positive number or a list of two positive numbers, not [2, 3, 4]
sage: P.show(figsize=[sqrt(2),sqrt(3)])
Set the color of the axes tick labels.
INPUT:
If called with no input, return the current tick_label_color setting.
EXAMPLES:
sage: p = plot(cos, (-3,3))
sage: p.tick_label_color()
(0, 0, 0)
sage: p.tick_label_color((1,0,0))
sage: p.tick_label_color()
(1.0, 0.0, 0.0)
sage: p
Graphics object consisting of 1 graphics primitive
EXAMPLES:
sage: g = line([(-1,1), (3,2)])
sage: g.xmax()
3.0
sage: g.xmax(10)
sage: g.xmax()
10.0
EXAMPLES:
sage: g = line([(-1,1), (3,2)])
sage: g.xmin()
-1.0
sage: g.xmin(-3)
sage: g.xmin()
-3.0
EXAMPLES:
sage: g = line([(-1,1), (3,2)])
sage: g.ymax()
2.0
sage: g.ymax(10)
sage: g.ymax()
10.0
EXAMPLES:
sage: g = line([(-1,1), (3,2)])
sage: g.ymin()
1.0
sage: g.ymin(-3)
sage: g.ymin()
-3.0
Bases: sage.structure.sage_object.SageObject
GraphicsArray takes a (\(m\) x \(n\)) list of lists of graphics objects and plots them all on one canvas.
Magic graphics method.
See sage.plot.graphics.Graphics._graphics_() for details.
EXAMPLES:
sage: from sage.plot.graphics import GraphicsArray
sage: g = GraphicsArray([])
sage: g._graphics_()
Graphics file image/png
sage: g._graphics_(mime_types={'foo/bar'}) is None
True
Appends a graphic to the array. Currently not implemented.
TESTS:
sage: from sage.plot.graphics import GraphicsArray
sage: G = GraphicsArray([plot(sin),plot(cos)])
sage: G.append(plot(tan))
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
NotImplementedError: Appending to a graphics array is not yet implemented
Number of columns of the graphics array.
EXAMPLES:
sage: R = rainbow(6)
sage: L = [plot(x^n,(x,0,1),color=R[n]) for n in range(6)]
sage: G = graphics_array(L,2,3)
sage: G.ncols()
3
sage: graphics_array(L).ncols()
6
Number of rows of the graphics array.
EXAMPLES:
sage: R = rainbow(6)
sage: L = [plot(x^n,(x,0,1),color=R[n]) for n in range(6)]
sage: G = graphics_array(L,2,3)
sage: G.nrows()
2
sage: graphics_array(L).nrows()
1
Save the graphics_array to a png called filename.
We loop over all graphics objects in the array and add them to a subplot and then render that.
INPUT:
EXAMPLES:
sage: F = tmp_filename(ext='.png')
sage: L = [plot(sin(k*x),(x,-pi,pi)) for k in [1..3]]
sage: G = graphics_array(L)
sage: G.save(F, dpi=500, axes=False) # long time (6s on sage.math, 2012)
TESTS:
sage: graphics_array([]).save()
sage: graphics_array([[]]).save()
Save an image representation of self. The image type is determined by the extension of the filename. For example, this could be .png, .jpg, .gif, .pdf, .svg. Currently this is implemented by calling the save() method of self, passing along all arguments and keywords.
Note
Not all image types are necessarily implemented for all graphics types. See save() for more details.
EXAMPLES:
sage: plots = [[plot(m*cos(x + n*pi/4), (x,0, 2*pi)) for n in range(3)] for m in range(1,3)]
sage: G = graphics_array(plots)
sage: G.save_image(tmp_filename()+'.png')
Show this graphics array using the default viewer.
OPTIONAL INPUT:
EXAMPLES:
This draws a graphics array with four trig plots and no axes in any of the plots:
sage: G = graphics_array([[plot(sin), plot(cos)], [plot(tan), plot(sec)]])
sage: G.show(axes=False)
Return True if \(x\) is a Graphics object.
EXAMPLES:
sage: from sage.plot.graphics import is_Graphics
sage: is_Graphics(1)
False
sage: is_Graphics(disk((0.0, 0.0), 1, (0, pi/2)))
True
Set the default for showing plots using any plot commands. If called with no arguments, returns the current default.
If this is True (the default) then any plot object when displayed will be displayed as an actual plot instead of text, i.e., the show command is not needed.
EXAMPLES:
The default starts out as True in interactive use and False in doctests:
sage: show_default() # long time
doctest:...: DeprecationWarning: this is done automatically by the doctest framework
See http://trac.sagemath.org/14469 for details.
False