Various parts of schemes were implemented by Volker Braun, David Joyner, David Kohel, Andrey Novoseltsev, and William Stein.

AUTHORS:

- David Kohel (2006-01-03): initial version
- William Stein (2006-01-05)
- William Stein (2006-01-20)
- Andrey Novoseltsev (2010-09-24): update due to addition of toric varieties.

**Scheme:**A scheme whose datatype might not be defined in terms of algebraic equations: e.g. the Jacobian of a curve may be represented by means of a Scheme.**AlgebraicScheme:**A scheme defined by means of polynomial equations, which may be reducible or defined over a ring other than a field. In particular, the defining ideal need not be a radical ideal, and an algebraic scheme may be defined over Spec(R).**AmbientSpaces:**Most effective models of algebraic scheme will be defined not by generic gluings, but by embeddings in some fixed ambient space.**AffineSpace:**Affine spaces and their affine subschemes form the most important universal objects from which algebraic schemes are built. The affine spaces form universal objects in the sense that a morphism is uniquely determined by the images of its coordinate functions and any such images determine a well-defined morphism.By default affine spaces will embed in some ordinary projective space, unless it is created as an affine patch of another object.

**ProjectiveSpace:**Projective spaces are the most natural ambient spaces for most projective objects. They are locally universal objects.**ProjectiveSpace_ordinary (not implemented)**The ordinary projective spaces have the standard weights \([1,..,1]\) on their coefficients.**ProjectiveSpace_weighted (not implemented):**A special subtype for non-standard weights.**ToricVariety:**Toric varieties are (partial) compactifications of algebraic tori \(\left(\CC^*\right)^n\) compatible with torus action. Affine and projective spaces are examples of toric varieties, but it is not envisioned that these special cases should inherit from`ToricVariety`.**AlgebraicScheme_subscheme_affine:**An algebraic scheme defined by means of an embedding in a fixed ambient affine space.**AlgebraicScheme_subscheme_projective:**An algebraic scheme defined by means of an embedding in a fixed ambient projective space.**QuasiAffineScheme (not yet implemented):**An open subset \(U = X \setminus Z\) of a closed subset \(X\) of affine space; note that this is mathematically a quasi-projective scheme, but its ambient space is an affine space and its points are represented by affine rather than projective points.Note

AlgebraicScheme_quasi is implemented, as a base class for this.

**QuasiProjectiveScheme (not yet implemented):**An open subset of a closed subset of projective space; this datatype stores the defining polynomial, polynomials, or ideal defining the projective closure \(X\) plus the closed subscheme \(Z\) of \(X\) whose complement \(U = X \setminus Z\) is the quasi-projective scheme.Note

The quasi-affine and quasi-projective datatype lets one create schemes like the multiplicative group scheme \(\mathbb{G}_m = \mathbb{A}^1\setminus \{(0)\}\) and the non-affine scheme \(\mathbb{A}^2\setminus \{(0,0)\}\). The latter is not affine and is not of the form \(\mathrm{Spec}(R)\).

**PointSets and points over a ring:**For algebraic schemes \(X/S\) and \(T/S\) over \(S\), one can form the point set \(X(T)\) of morphisms from \(T\to X\) over \(S\).sage: PP.<X,Y,Z> = ProjectiveSpace(2, QQ) sage: PP Projective Space of dimension 2 over Rational Field

The first line is an abuse of language – returning the generators of the coordinate ring by

`gens()`.A projective space object in the category of schemes is a locally free object – the images of the generator functions

*locally*determine a point. Over a field, one can choose one of the standard affine patches by the condition that a coordinate function \(X_i \ne 0\)sage: PP(QQ) Set of rational points of Projective Space of dimension 2 over Rational Field sage: PP(QQ)([-2,3,5]) (-2/5 : 3/5 : 1)

Over a ring, this is not true, e.g. even over an integral domain which is not a PID, there may be no

*single*affine patch which covers a point.sage: R.<x> = ZZ[] sage: S.<t> = R.quo(x^2+5) sage: P.<X,Y,Z> = ProjectiveSpace(2, S) sage: P(S) Set of rational points of Projective Space of dimension 2 over Univariate Quotient Polynomial Ring in t over Integer Ring with modulus x^2 + 5

In order to represent the projective point \((2:1+t) = (1-t:3)\) we note that the first representative is not well-defined at the prime \(pp = (2,1+t)\) and the second element is not well-defined at the prime \(qq = (1-t,3)\), but that \(pp + qq = (1)\), so globally the pair of coordinate representatives is well-defined.

sage: P( [2, 1+t] ) (2 : t + 1 : 1)

In fact, we need a test

`R.ideal([2,1+t]) == R.ideal([1])`in order to make this meaningful.