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\title{Magma, Maple, Mathematica, MATLAB, and ... SAGE}
\author{William Stein\\
Associate Professor of Mathematics\\
University of Washington}
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% - Keep it simple, no one is interested in your street address.
\date[Feb 18, 2007] % (optional)
{\vspace{-6ex}
February 18, 2007
}
\subject{Talks}
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\begin{document}
\begin{frame}
\titlepage
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\begin{frame}
\frametitle{Purpose}
{\large This talk is a culturally and historically
oriented
introduction to the mathematical software systems Magma,
Maple, Mathematica, MATLAB, and SAGE.}
\end{frame}
% \begin{frame}
% \frametitle{Market Share Estimates}
% Estimates based on number of employees and {\dred baseless rumors}.
% \hspace{1in}\includegraphics[width=0.7\textwidth]{market.png}
% {\dred Red - MATLAB: 87\%}\\
% {\dblue Blue - Mathematica: 8\%}\\
% {\dgreen Green - Maple: 4\%}\\
% Yellow - Magma: Less than 1\%\\
% Black - SAGE: 0\%
% Probably this represents over 500,\!000 sales and over a hundred
% million dollars per year.
% \end{frame}
\begin{frame}
\frametitle{Magma: Software to Solve Computationally Hard Problems in Pure Mathematics}
\includegraphics[width=0.5\textwidth]{allan}
\includegraphics[width=0.5\textwidth]{JJ_Cannon}
Allan Steel and John Cannon -- the masterminds behind Magma.
\end{frame}
\begin{frame}
\frametitle{Magma}
``Magma is a large, well-supported software package designed to solve
computationally hard problems in algebra, number theory, geometry and
combinatorics.''
\begin{enumerate}
\item {\bf Origins:} 1973 as Cayley, then renamed Magma in 1993.
University setting -- {\em not} a company. {\dred Not for profit.}
\item {\bf Mission:} ``Develop computer techniques for solving symbolic
problems in mathematics, with particular emphasis on the areas of
algebra, number theory and geometry.''
\item {\bf Funding:} Australian Research Council and License Fees
\item {\bf List price:} The educational price is \$1150 per copy.
\item {\bf Employees:} 9 full time employees (four with BS degrees,
5 with Ph.D.'s); about 3 visitors at any time.
\item {\bf My guess at their annual budget:} One million.
Namely \$840K for 12 employees
and visitors at \$70K per year (taxes, benefits, expenses). Plus
\$160K for conferences, etc.
\item {\bf Estimated income:} \$100K/year from grants and \$900K/year from
licenses.
\item {\bf Estimated number users:} About 2,000
(since 1800 = \$900K/\$500, and average cost probably \$500/license).
\end{enumerate}
\end{frame}
\begin{frame}
\frametitle{Maple: Shifting the emphasis from creating math...}
\begin{quote}
``Shifting the emphasis from creating math to making it more
accessible and easy to use..''
\end{quote}
%http://www.maplesoft.com/company/news/html/2005-05-16-maple10launch.aspx
\includegraphics[width=\textwidth]{maple1}
\end{frame}
\begin{frame}
\frametitle{Maple: Waterloo Maple, Inc.}
\includegraphics[width=0.7in]{maple11_box}
\begin{enumerate}
\item {\bf Origins:} A {\em company} founded in 1988 to {\em commercialize
intellectual property developed at the University of Waterloo} in the
early 1980s. A privately held company in Waterloo, Ontario.
\item {\bf List price:} \$1,895 (regular), \$995 (academic), \$99 (student)
\item {\bf Employees:} ???
\item {\bf My guess at their annual revenue:} \$20 million.
\item {\bf Estimated number of users:} One million.
In press releases, Maple claimed a million users in 2002,
five million in 2003, then two million in 2005.
%http://scientificcomputing.blogspot.com/2006/11/maple-loses-three-million-users.html
\end{enumerate}
\end{frame}
\begin{frame}
\frametitle{Mathematica: Stephen Wolfram's Brainchild}
\begin{center}
\includegraphics[height=0.3\textheight]{wolfram}
\hfill
\includegraphics[height=0.4\textheight]{rollovers-main}
\hfill
\includegraphics[height=0.3\textheight]{stephen_wolfram}
Stephen Wolfram
\end{center}
\includegraphics[width=\textwidth]{reinvent-ad}
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\frametitle{Mathematica}
\includegraphics[width=0.7in]{m6storebox}
\begin{quote}
``Defining the Frontiers of Computation.''
\end{quote}
\begin{enumerate}
\item {\bf Origins:} Founded in 1987 by Stephen Wolfram
{\em to commercialize software developed at UIUC}. Private
company in small town Illinois.
\item {\bf List price:} \$2,495/copy for normal people; \$1095/copy
for professors; \$139.95/copy for students; \$1,995/copy for government
employees.
\item {\bf Employees:} Approximately 500 employees (their website
says ``a tightly knit core of fewer than 500 employees'').
\item {\bf My guess at their annual budget:} \$37.5 million
\item {\bf Estimated number of users:} 2 million.
Mathematica claimed 1 million users in 1999, so they probably
have about 2 million users today.
%http://media.wolfram.com/releases/1999/V4press.releasefinal.html
\end{enumerate}
\end{frame}
\begin{frame}
\frametitle{Mathematica Revenue Estimate}
\includegraphics[width=1.1in]{money}
\begin{itemize}
\item Mathematica has approximately 500 employees (their website
says ``with a tightly knit core of fewer than 500 employees'').
\item On average a Mathematica employee probably costs roughly
\$75K/year, including benefits, etc.
\item So Mathematica's revenue is probably somewhere around
{$$
\dred\large 500\times 75,\!000 = 37.5 \text{ million dollars per year.}
$$}
\item Mathematica costs between \$140 and \$2,495 per copy, so let's
say the average cost is \$500/copy. That's 75,\!000 copies per
year.
\end{itemize}
\end{frame}
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\frametitle{MATLAB: Numerical Computation}
\mbox{}\hfill\includegraphics[width=0.5\textwidth]{matlab1}\vspace{1ex}
\begin{quote}
``Mathematical computation, analysis, visualization, and algorithm development''
\end{quote}
\begin{enumerate}
\item {\bf Origins:} Founded in 1984 to
create a {\em more productive computation environment} beyond
that provided by the languages Fortran and C.
Headquartered in Natick,
Massachusetts. Privately held company.
\item {\bf List price:} \$1,900/per copy. Tens of thousands of
dollars in addons are available.
\item {\bf Employees:} ``More than 1,500 people worldwide.''
\item {\bf My guess at their annual budget:} About \$100 million (i.e.,
roughly three times the size of Mathematica).
\item {\bf Estimated number of users:} I guess 5 million, though they
write ``Our customers are 1,000,000 of the world's leading technical people, in over 100 countries, on all seven continents.''
%http://www.mathworks.com/company/aboutus/index.html
\end{enumerate}
\end{frame}
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\frametitle{Flash Movie about the origins of MATLAB}
Cleve Moller and Jack Little founded MATLAB in 1984...
\vfill
\begin{center}
\includegraphics[width=0.6\textwidth]{cleve_moller-video}
\vfill
http://www.mathworks.com/company/aboutus/founders/clevemoler.html
\end{center}
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\frametitle{SAGE: Free Open Source Mathematics Software}
\begin{center}
\vfill
\includegraphics[width=0.17\textwidth]{cube5.png}
\hfill
\includegraphics[width=0.5\textwidth]{sagelogo.png}
\end{center}
\begin{enumerate}
\item {\bf Origins:} Started in January 2005 by William Stein by
combining together the open source programs
PARI, Maxima, Python, Singular and GAP.
\item {\bf Mission statement:} ``Create a viable open source
free alternative to Magma, Maple, Mathematica, and MATLAB which
uses a standard modern language.''
\item {\bf List price:} \$0
\item {\bf Full Time Employees:} 0
\item {\bf Part Time Employees:} 5 (1 grad student and 4 undergrads).
\item {\bf Volunteers:} About 50, with at least 20 regular contributors.
\item {\bf Annual budget:} Currently about \$50K.
\item {\bf Estimated number of users:} Between 200 and 1000.
\end{enumerate}
\begin{center}
{\tt http://www.sagemath.org}
\end{center}
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\end{document}